Preparation of nanoemulsion of Cinnamomum zeylanicum oil and evaluation of its larvicidal activity against a main malaria vector Anopheles stephensi

Abstract

Purpose

There is a growing need to use green and efficient larvicidal as alternatives for conventional chemicals in vector control programs. Nanotechnology has provided a promising approach for research and development of new larvicides. Larvicidal potential of a nanoemulsion of Cinnamomum zeylanicum essential oil reports against Anopheles stephensi.

Methods

The nanoemulsion of was formulated in various ratios comprising of C. zeylanicum oil, tween 80, span 20 and water by stirrer. It was characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and dynamic light scattering (DLS). All components of C. zeylanicum essential oil were identified by GC–MS analysis. The larvicidal potential of the oil and its nanoformulation were evaluated against larvae of An. stephensi. The stability and durability of nanoemulsion was observed over a period of time.

Results

Sixty one components in the oil were identified, cinnamaldehyde (56.803%) was the main component. The LC90 and LC50 values of C. zeylanicum essential oil were calculated as 49 ppm and 37 ppm, respectively. The nanoemulsion droplets were found spherical in shape. It was able to kill 100% of larvae in up to 3 days. It was stable after dilution and increased its larvicidal activity up to 32% compared with the essential oil.

Conclusions

A novel larvicide based on nanotechnology introduced. This experiment clearly showed increasing larvicidal activity and residual effect of the nanoformulation in comparison with the bulk essential oil. It could be concluded that this nanoemulsion may be considered as safe larvicide and should be subject of more research in this field.

Graphical abstract

This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.

Fig. 1
Fig. 2
Fig. 3
Fig. 4
Fig. 5
Fig. 6

References

  1. 1.

    WHO. World malaria report 2020.

  2. 2.

    Beier JC, Keating J, Githure JI, Macdonald MB, Impoinvil DE, Novak RJ. Integrated vector management for malaria control. Malar J. 2008;7(S1):S4.

    Google Scholar 

  3. 3.

    Organization WH. Vector alert: Anopheles stephensi invasion and spread: World Health Organization 2019.

  4. 4.

    Enayati A, Hanafi-Bojd AA, Sedaghat MM, Zaim M, Hemingway J. Evolution of insecticide resistance and its mechanisms in Anopheles stephensi in the WHO eastern Mediterranean region. Malar J. 2020;19(1):1–12.

    Google Scholar 

  5. 5.

    Echeverría J. Albuquerque RDDGd. Nanoemulsions of essential oils: New tool for control of vector-borne diseases and in vitro effects on some parasitic agents. Medicines. 2019;6(2):42.

    Google Scholar 

  6. 6.

    Gutiérrez J, González C, Maestro A, Solè I, Pey C, Nolla J. Nano-emulsions: new applications and optimization of their preparation. Curr Opin Colloid Interface Sci. 2008;13(4):245–51.

    Google Scholar 

  7. 7.

    Charoen R, Jangchud A, Jangchud K, Harnsilawat T, Decker EA, McClements DJ. Influence of interfacial composition on oxidative stability of oil-in-water emulsions stabilized by biopolymer emulsifiers. Food Chem. 2012;131(4):1340–6.

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  8. 8.

    Zinatloo-Ajabshir S, Baladi M, Salavati-Niasari M. Enhanced visible-light-driven photocatalytic performance for degradation of organic contaminants using PbWO4 nanostructure fabricated by a new, simple and green sonochemical approach. Ultrason Sonochem. 2021;72:105420.

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  9. 9.

    Jafari SM, He Y, Bhandari B. Production of sub-micron emulsions by ultrasound and microfluidization techniques. J Food Eng. 2007;82(4):478–88.

    Google Scholar 

  10. 10.

    Solans C, Izquierdo P, Nolla J, Azemar N, Garcia-Celma MJ. Nano-emulsions. Curr Opin Colloid Interface Sci. 2005;10(3–4):102–10.

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  11. 11.

    Cerqueira MÂPR, Pinheiro ACB, do Carmo CVS, Duarte CMM, da Cunha MdGC, de Oliveira Soares AAM. Nanostructured biobased systems for nutrient and bioactive compounds delivery. Nutrient Delivery. Elsevier; 2017. p. 43–85.

  12. 12.

    Mousavi-Kamazani M, Zinatloo-Ajabshir S, Ghodrati M. One-step sonochemical synthesis of Zn (OH) 2/ZnV 3 O 8 nanostructures as a potent material in electrochemical hydrogen storage. J Mater Sci Mater Electron. 2020;31(20):17332–8.

    Google Scholar 

  13. 13.

    Zinatloo-Ajabshir S, Ghasemian N, Mousavi-Kamazani M, Salavati-Niasari M. Effect of zirconia on improving NOx reduction efficiency of Nd2Zr2O7 nanostructure fabricated by a new, facile and green sonochemical approach. Ultrason Sonochem. 2021;71:105376.

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  14. 14.

    Ghodrati M, Mousavi-Kamazani M, Zinatloo-Ajabshir S. Zn3V3O8 nanostructures: facile hydrothermal/solvothermal synthesis, characterization, and electrochemical hydrogen storage. Ceram Int. 2020;46(18):28894–902.

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  15. 15.

    Zinatloo AS, Taheri QN. Inverse miniemulsion method for synthesis of gelatin nanoparticles in presence of CDI/NHS as a non-toxic cross-linking system. 2014.

  16. 16.

    Zinatloo-Ajabshir S, Taheri QN. Effect of some synthetic parameters on size and polydispersity index of gelatin nanoparticles cross-linked by CDI/NHS system. J Nanostruct. 2015;5(2):137–44.

    Google Scholar 

  17. 17.

    Zinatloo-Ajabshir S, Morassaei MS, Salavati-Niasari M. Simple approach for the synthesis of Dy2Sn2O7 nanostructures as a hydrogen storage material from banana juice. J Clean Prod. 2019;222:103–10.

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  18. 18.

    Zinatloo-Ajabshir S, Morassaei MS, Amiri O, Salavati-Niasari M. Green synthesis of dysprosium stannate nanoparticles using Ficus carica extract as photocatalyst for the degradation of organic pollutants under visible irradiation. Ceram Int. 2020;46(5):6095–107.

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  19. 19.

    Duarte JL, Maciel De Faria Motta Oliveira AE, Pinto MC, Chorilli M. Botanical insecticide–based nanosystems for the control of Aedes (Stegomyia) aegypti larvae. Environ Sci Poll Res. 2020:1–12.

  20. 20.

    Singh G, Kapoor I, Pandey S, Singh U, Singh R. Studies on essential oils: part 10; antibacterial activity of volatile oils of some spices. Phytotherapy Res: Int J Devoted Pharmacol Toxicol Eval Nat Product Derivatives. 2002;16(7):680–2.

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  21. 21.

    Edris AE. Pharmaceutical and therapeutic potentials of essential oils and their individual volatile constituents: a review. Phytotherapy Res: Int J Devoted Pharmacol Toxicol Eval Nat Product Derivatives. 2007;21(4):308–23.

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  22. 22.

    Piplani M, Bhagwat DP, Singhvi G, Sankaranarayanan M, Balana-Fouce R, Vats T, et al. Plant-based larvicidal agents: an overview from 2000 to 2018. Exp Parasitol. 2019;199:92–103.

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  23. 23.

    Medhi SM, Reza S, Mahnaz K, Reza AM, Abbas H, Fatemeh M, et al. Phytochemistry and larvicidal activity of Eucalyptus camaldulensis against malaria vector, Anopheles stephensi. Asian Pac J Trop Med. 2010;3(11):841–5.

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  24. 24.

    Sedaghat M, Dehkordi AS, Abai M, Khanavi M, Mohtarami F, Abadi YS, et al. Larvicidal activity of essential oils of Apiaceae plants against malaria vector, Anopheles stephensi. Iran J Arthropod Borne Dis. 2011;5(2):51–9.

    Google Scholar 

  25. 25.

    Vatandoost H, Dehkordi AS, Sadeghi S, Davari B, Karimian F, Abai M, et al. Identification of chemical constituents and larvicidal activity of Kelussia odoratissima Mozaffarian essential oil against two mosquito vectors Anopheles stephensi and Culex pipiens (Diptera: Culicidae). Exp Parasitol. 2012;132(4):470–4.

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  26. 26.

    Sedaghat MM, Dehkordi AS, Khanavi M, Abai MR, Mohtarami F, Vatandoost H. Chemical composition and larvicidal activity of essential oil of Cupressus arizonica EL Greene against malaria vector Anopheles stephensi Liston (Diptera: Culicidae). Pharm Res. 2011;3(2):135.

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  27. 27.

    Sanei-Dehkordi A, Vatandoost H, Abaei MR, Davari B, Sedaghat MM. Chemical composition and larvicidal activity of Bunium persicum essential oil against two important mosquitoes vectors. J Essential Oil Bearing Plants. 2016;19(2):349–57.

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  28. 28.

    Osanloo M, Sedaghat MM, Sanei-Dehkordi A, Amani A. Plant-derived essential oils; their larvicidal properties and potential application for control of mosquito-borne diseases. Galen Med J. 2019;8:1532.

    Google Scholar 

  29. 29.

    Ramachandran S, Singh SK, Larroche C, Soccol CR, Pandey A. Oil cakes and their biotechnological applications–a review. Bioresour Technol. 2007;98(10):2000–9.

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  30. 30.

    Sharma A, Gupta S, Sarethy IP, Dang S, Gabrani R. Green tea extract: possible mechanism and antibacterial activity on skin pathogens. Food Chem. 2012;135(2):672–5.

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  31. 31.

    Cheong AM, Tan KW, Tan CP, Nyam KL. Kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus L.) seed oil-in-water Pickering nanoemulsions stabilised by mixture of sodium caseinate, tween 20 and β-cyclodextrin. Food Hydrocoll. 2016;52:934–41.

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  32. 32.

    Cheong AM, Tan CP, Nyam KL. Physicochemical, oxidative and anti-oxidant stabilities of kenaf seed oil-in-water nanoemulsions under different storage temperatures. Ind Crop Prod. 2017;95:374–82.

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  33. 33.

    Mallavarapu G, Rao B. Chemical constituents and uses of Cinnamomum zeylanicum Blume. Aromatic Plants From Asia Their Chem Appl Foof Therapy Har Krishan Bhalla Sons Dehradun India. 2007.

  34. 34.

    Thomas A, Mazigo HD, Manjurano A, Morona D, Kweka EJ. Evaluation of active ingredients and larvicidal activity of clove and Cinnamon essential oils against Anopheles gambiae (sensu lato). Parasit Vectors. 2017;10(1):411.

    Google Scholar 

  35. 35.

    Organization WH. Guidelines for laboratory and field testing of mosquito larvicides: World Health Organization2005.

  36. 36.

    Finney DJ. Probit analysis: Cambridge University Press; 1971.

  37. 37.

    Randhawa MA. Calculation of LD50 values from the method of miller and Tainter, 1944. J Ayub Med Coll Abbottabad. 2009;21(3):184–5.

    Google Scholar 

  38. 38.

    Van Den Dool H, Kratz PD. A generalization of the retention index system including linear temperature programmed gas-liquid partition chromatography 1963.

  39. 39.

    Zinatloo-Ajabshir S, Salehi Z, Amiri O, Salavati-Niasari M. Green synthesis, characterization and investigation of the electrochemical hydrogen storage properties of Dy2Ce2O7 nanostructures with fig extract. Int J Hydrog Energy. 2019;44(36):20110–20.

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  40. 40.

    Osanloo M, Amani A, Sereshti H, Abai MR, Esmaeili F, Sedaghat MM. Preparation and optimization nanoemulsion of Tarragon (Artemisia dracunculus) essential oil as effective herbal larvicide against Anopheles stephensi. Ind Crop Prod. 2017;109:214–9.

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  41. 41.

    Sell CS. The chemistry of fragrances: from perfumer to consumer: Royal Society of Chemistry; 2006.

  42. 42.

    Unlu M, Ergene E, Unlu GV, Zeytinoglu HS, Vural N. Composition, antimicrobial activity and in vitro cytotoxicity of essential oil from Cinnamomum zeylanicum Blume (Lauraceae). Food Chem Toxicol. 2010;48(11):3274–80.

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  43. 43.

    Dongmo PMJ, Tatsadjieu LN, Tchoumbougnang F, Sameza ML, Dongmo BN, Zollo PHA, et al. Chemical composition, antiradical and antifungal activities of essential oil of the leaves of Cinnamomum zeylanicum Blume from Cameroon. Nat Prod Commun. 2007;2(12):1934578X0700201219.

    Google Scholar 

  44. 44.

    Ojagh S, Rezaei M, Razavi S, Hosseini S. Investigation of antibacterial activity cinnamon bark essential oil (Cinnamomum zeylanicum) in vitro antibacterial activity against five food spoilage bacteria. 2012.

  45. 45.

    Jayaprakasha GK. Jagan Mohan Rao L, Sakariah KK. Volatile constituents from Cinnamomum zeylanicum fruit stalks and their antioxidant activities. J Agric Food Chem. 2003;51(15):4344–8.

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  46. 46.

    Jayaprakasha GK, Rao LJ, Sakariah KK. Chemical composition of volatile oil from Cinnamomum zeylanicum buds. Zeitschrift für Naturforschung C. 2002;57(11–12):990–3.

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  47. 47.

    Uma B, Prabhakar K, Rajendran S, LAKSHMI SY. Studies on GC/MS spectroscopic analysis of some bioactive antimicrobial compounds from Cinnamomum zeylanicum. 2009.

    Google Scholar 

  48. 48.

    Manimaran A, Cruz MMJJ, Muthu C, Vincent S, Ignacimuthu S. Larvicidal and knockdown effects of some essential oils against Culex quinquefasciatus Say, Aedes aegypti (L.) and Anopheles stephensi (Liston). 2012.

  49. 49.

    Anjali C, Sharma Y, Mukherjee A, Chandrasekaran N. Neem oil (Azadirachta indica) nanoemulsion—a potent larvicidal agent against Culex quinquefasciatus. Pest Manag Sci. 2012;68(2):158–63.

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  50. 50.

    Kale NJ, Allen LV Jr. Studies on microemulsions using Brij 96 as surfactant and glycerin, ethylene glycol and propylene glycol as cosurfactants. Int J Pharm. 1989;57(2):87–93.

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  51. 51.

    Osanloo M, Sedaghat M, Sereshti H, Rahmanian M, Saeedi Landi F, Amani A. Chitosan nanocapsules of tarragon essential oil with low cytotoxicity and long-lasting activity as a green nano-larvicide. J Nanostruct. 2019;9(4):723–35.

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  52. 52.

    Volpato A, Baretta D, Zortéa T, Campigotto G, Galli GM, Glombowsky P, et al. Larvicidal and insecticidal effect of Cinnamomum zeylanicum oil (pure and nanostructured) against mealworm (Alphitobius diaperinus) and its possible environmental effects. J Asia Pac Entomol. 2016;19(4):1159–65.

    Google Scholar 

  53. 53.

    Balasubramani S, Rajendhiran T, Moola AK, Diana RKB. Development of nanoemulsion from Vitex negundo L. essential oil and their efficacy of antioxidant, antimicrobial and larvicidal activities (Aedes aegypti L.). Environ Sci Pollut Res. 2017;24(17):15125–33.

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  54. 54.

    Sundararajan B, Moola AK, Vivek K, Kumari BR. Formulation of nanoemulsion from leaves essential oil of Ocimum basilicum L. and its antibacterial, antioxidant and larvicidal activities (Culex quinquefasciatus). Microb Pathog. 2018;125:475–85.

    CAS  Google Scholar 

Download references

Acknowledgments

This research has been supported by Tehran University of Medical Sciences & Health Services grant no. IR. TUMS. VCR. REC. 1397. 584.

Author information

Affiliations

Authors

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Mohammad Mehdi Sedaghat.

Ethics declarations

Conflict of interest

The authors declare no conflict of interest.

Additional information

Publisher’s note

Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Firooziyan, S., Amani, A., Osanloo, M. et al. Preparation of nanoemulsion of Cinnamomum zeylanicum oil and evaluation of its larvicidal activity against a main malaria vector Anopheles stephensi. J Environ Health Sci Engineer 19, 1025–1034 (2021). https://doi.org/10.1007/s40201-021-00667-0

Download citation

Keywords

  • Cinnamomum zeylanicum
  • Nanoemulsion
  • Larvicidal activity
  • Anopheles stephensi