Endotoxin and Der p1 allergen levels in indoor air and settled dust in day-care centers in Tehran, Iran

  • Elahe Shahhosseini
  • Kazem Naddafi
  • Ramin Nabizadeh
  • Mansour Shamsipour
  • Zahra Namvar
  • Behnoosh Tayebi
  • Raheleh Shokouhi Shoormasti
  • Mohammad Sadegh HassanvandEmail author
  • Masud YunesianEmail author
Research article



Allergens like endotoxin and mite allergen Der p 1 are associated with early wheezing and asthma morbidity. Day-care centers can be an important source of exposure to allergens. The aim of this study was to evaluate children’s exposure to endotoxin and mite allergen (Der p 1) associated with total suspended particulate matter (TSP) and settled dust in day-care centers in two phases in years of 2015 and 2016 in Tehran city, Iran.


Endotoxin and mite allergen Der p 1 in TSP and settled dust were measured in 23 day-care centers in Tehran. After collecting dust samples and weighting them, and then their extraction, Endotoxin and Der p 1 allergen were determined using QCL-1000 Endpoint chromogenic LAL Assay and ELISA, respectively.


The mean concentrations of endotoxin and mite allergen Der p 1 in settled dust were 0.3 EU/mg and 0.2 ng/mg, respectively. The mean concentration of endotoxin and mite allergen Der p 1 in indoor air TSP were 0.8 EU/m3 and 0.4 ng/m3, respectively. A significant negative correlation was found between endotoxin both in settled dust and in TSP with measured relative humidity in winter. Also, moderate correlation was observed between Der p 1 in settled dust and relative humidity in winter; however, the correlation between allergen in TSP and relative humidity was not significant.


Day-care centers can be an important source of endotoxin and Der p 1 allergen, so, implementation of proper interventions in these places can reduce exposure to them.


Indoor air Endotoxin Der p 1 Mite allergen Day-care centers Tehran 



The authors acknowledge the Institute for Environmental Research (IER) of Tehran University of Medical Sciences for technically and financially supporting this research (grant number 93-03-46-27166). The authors also thank to the administrations of day-care centers for their cooperation.


This study was funded by Institute for Environmental Research (IER) of Tehran University of Medical Sciences (grant number 93–03–46-27166).

Compliance with ethical standards

Competing interests

There is no actual or potential conflict of interest among authors.


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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Environmental Health Engineering, School of Public HealthTehran University of Medical SciencesTehranIran
  2. 2.Center for Air Pollution Research (CAPR), Institute for Environmental Research (IER)Tehran University of Medical SciencesTehranIran
  3. 3.Department of Research Methodology and Data Analysis, Institute for Environmental ResearchTehran University of Medical SciencesTehranIran
  4. 4.Department of Environmental Health Engineering, School of Public Health and SafetyShahid Beheshti University of Medical SciencesTehranIran
  5. 5.Immunology, Asthma and Allergy Research InstituteTehran University of Medical SciencesTehranIran

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