Designing, constructing and testing of a new generation of sound barriers

  • Hadi Negahdari
  • Sirus JavadpourEmail author
  • Faramarz Moattar
Research Article



Nowadays, noise pollution is considered a major environmental problem which has affected the health and comfort of millions of people around the world. Solving the mentioned problems need to design a new generation of acoustic barriers. Acoustics experts believe that stopping and absorbing the low-frequency sound is difficult. The aims of this study were to remove the harmful frequency in industries and cities. This study concentrates on the reduction of the noise level and increasing the mass law and resonance at low frequencies.


Sound measurement and frequency analysis did to fix the harmful frequency in the Shiraz city and in the Shiraz Gas Power Plant. COMSOL 5.3a software used for simulation. Suitable material chose for the manufacture of the sound barrier through the Cambridge engineering selection software 2013. The meta-material sound barrier made and tested in the acoustic room and in the free space. Results analyzed and optimized by Design of Experiment (DOE) and Response Surface Methodology (RSM) software. Mini Tab. 18.1 software used for Statistical Calculations. New sound barriers manufactured with adding new strategies to previous studies to improve the performance of meta-materials like beautification inspired from the flowers of nature and increasing of resonance in internal pipes.


Three mechanisms used in this scatterer model which included, resonance phenomenon, Band Gap (BG) without absorption mechanism and inner-fractal-like structure. Our technique showed an advantage to reduce at frequencies below 100 Hz without adsorbent usage. The results showed that reduced noise exposures about 17.8 dB at frequency 50 Hz, about 9.1 dB within the range of 250 Hz according to EN 1793–2 standard (Lab Test for Airborne Sound Insulation). The sound barrier reported in this work provides the best and updated solution in the field of noise control.


A novel generation of sound barriers introduced. We called this structure Interior Quasi-Fractal Sonic Crystal Acoustic Barrier (IQFSCAB). In this study, several different gaps used to remove various frequencies. It could be concluded that the outcomes of the meta-material models based on the Sonic Crystal (SC) could be used for the purpose of noise control system and could be helpful for decision-makers on the noise control legislations.

Graphical abstract

Interaction of waves with noise barriers and wave propagation inside periodic media is a hot topic in many branches of science and technology. The acoustic metamaterial can create green environments by reducing the low frequencies of industrial noise or traffic jam. New barrier have added a number of new strategies to previous studies in order to improve the performance of meta-materials. Our technique shows a clear advantage over to absorb at frequencies below 100 Hz without adsorbent usage. Innovative use of several different gaps and diameters for to remove various frequencies was done in this study. We called this structure IQFSACB due to fractal like interior pipes as those seen in some of the flowers in nature.


Sonic crystals Sound insulation index Environmental pollution Noise barriers Noise control Noise pollution 



This research project was part of a Ph.D. dissertation of the first author in Environmental Engineering at Islamic Azad University, Faculty of Natural Resources and Environment, Science and Research Branch, Tehran, Iran, supported by Shiraz University Laboratory (Civil and Materials College, School of Engineering) and Shiraz Gas Power Plant (For Acoustic Room, 2017–2018). This research did not receive any specific grant from funding agencies in the public, commercial, or not-for-profit sectors.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors confirm no conflicts of interest associated with this publication.

Supplementary material

40201_2019_357_MOESM1_ESM.pdf (1.2 mb)
ESM 1 (PDF 1210 kb)


  1. 1.
    Martin PA. Multiple scattering: interaction of time-harmonic waves with N obstacles: Cambridge University Press; 2006.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Chen S, Jiang Y, Chen J, Wang D. The effects of various additive components on the sound absorption performances of polyurethane foams. Adv Mater Sci Eng. 2015;2015:1–9.Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Asdrubali F, D'Alessandro F, Schiavoni S. Sound absorbing properties of materials made of rubber crumbs. J Acoust Soc Am. 2008 Jul;123(5):3037.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Lee FC, Chen WH. Acoustic transmission analysis of multi-layer absorbers. J Sound Vib. 2001 Dec 6;248(4):621–34.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Boroditsky M, Vrijen RB, Krauss TF, Coccioli R, Bhat RJ, Yablonovitch E, editors. Control of spontaneus emission in photonic crystals. Light-Emitting Diodes: Research, Manufacturing, and Applications III; 1999: International Society for Optics and Photonics.Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Englund D, Fattal D, Waks E, Solomon G, Zhang B, Nakaoka T, et al. Controlling the spontaneous emission rate of single quantum dots in a two-dimensional photonic crystal. Phys Rev Lett. 2005;95(1):013904.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Vlasov YA, O'boyle M, Hamann HF, McNab SJ. Active control of slow light on a chip with photonic crystal waveguides. Nature. 2005;438(7064):65–9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Altug H, Vučković J. Experimental demonstration of the slow group velocity of light in two-dimensional coupled photonic crystal microcavity arrays. Appl Phys Lett. 2005;86(11):111102.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Brown E, Parker C, Yablonovitch E. Radiation properties of a planar antenna on a photonic-crystal substrate. JOSA B. 1993;10(2):404–7.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Meade RD, Devenyi A, Joannopoulos J, Alerhand O, Smith D, Kash K. Novel applications of photonic band gap materials: low-loss bends and high Q cavities. J Appl Phys. 1994;75(9):4753–5.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Altug H, Englund D, Vučković J. Ultrafast photonic crystal nanocavity laser. Nat Phys. 2006;2(7):484–8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    El-Kady I, Reda Taha M, Su M. Application of photonic crystals in submicron damage detection and quantification. Appl Phys Lett. 2006;88(25):253109.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Chutinan A, John S, Toader O. Diffractionless flow of light in all-optical microchips. Phys Rev Lett. 2003;90(12):123901.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Kushwaha MS. Stop-bands for periodic metallic rods: sculptures that can filter the noise. Appl Phys Lett. 1997;70(24):3218–20.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Sánchez-Pérez JV, Caballero D, Mártinez-Sala R, Rubio C, Sánchez-Dehesa J, Meseguer F, et al. Sound attenuation by a two-dimensional array of rigid cylinders. Phys Rev Lett. 1998;80(24):5325–8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Robertson W, Rudy III J. Measurement of acoustic stop bands in two-dimensional periodic scattering arrays. The Journal of the Acoustical Society of America.Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Movchan A, Guenneau S. Split-ring resonators and localized modes. Phys Rev B. 2004;70(12):125116.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Hu X, Chan CT, Zi J. Two-dimensional sonic crystals with Helmholtz resonators. Phys Rev E. 2005;71(5):055601.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Fang N, Xi D, Xu J, Ambati M, Srituravanich W, Sun C, et al. Ultrasonic metamaterials with negative modulus. Nat Mater. 2006;5(6):452–6.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Guenneau S, Movchan A, Pétursson G, Ramakrishna SA. Acoustic metamaterials for sound focusing and confinement. New J Phys. 2007;9(11):399.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Li X, Liu Z. Coupling of cavity modes and guiding modes in two-dimensional phononic crystals. Solid State Commun. 2005;133(6):397–402.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Umnova O, Attenborough K, Linton CM. Effects of porous covering on sound attenuation by periodic arrays of cylinders. J Acoust Soc Am. 2006;119(1):278–84.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Martínez-Sala R, Rubio C, García-Raffi LM, Sánchez-Pérez JV, Sánchez-Pérez EA, Llinares J. Control of noise by trees arranged like sonic crystals. J Sound Vib. 2006;291(1–2):100–6.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Romero-García V, Fuster E, García-Raffi L, Sánchez-Pérez EA, Sopena M, Llinares J, et al. Band gap creation using quasiordered structures based on sonic crystals. Appl Phys Lett. 2006;88(17):174104.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Martínez-Sala R. Sound attenuation by sculpture. Nature. 1995;378:241.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Yablonovitch E. Inhibited spontaneous emission in solid-state physics and electronics. Phys Rev Lett. 1987;58(20):2059–62.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Economou E, Sigalas M. Classical wave propagation in periodic structures: cermet versus network topology. Phys Rev B. 1993;48(18):13434–8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Yang S, Page JH, Liu Z, Cowan ML, Chan CT, Sheng P. Focusing of sound in a 3D phononic crystal. Phys Rev Lett. 2004;93(2):024301.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Cai C, Mak CM, Wang X. Noise attenuation performance improvement by adding Helmholtz resonators on the periodic ducted Helmholtz resonator system. Appl Acoust. 2017 Jul 1;122:8–15.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Soukoulis CM, Kafesaki M, Economou EN. Negative-index materials: new Frontiers in optics. Adv Mater. 2006 Aug 4;18(15):1941–52.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Håkansson A, Cervera F, Sánchez-Dehesa J. Sound focusing by flat acoustic lenses without negative refraction. Appl Phys Lett. 2005 Jan 31;86(5):054102.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Liu Z, Zhang X, Mao Y, Zhu YY, Yang Z, Chan CT, et al. Locally resonant sonic materials. Science. 2000 Sep 8;289(5485):1734–6.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Korringa J. On the calculation of the energy of a Bloch wave in a metal. Physica. 1947 Aug 1;13(6–7):392–400.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Kohn W, Rostoker N. Solution of the Schrödinger equation in periodic lattices with an application to metallic lithium. Phys Rev. 1954 Jun 1;94(5):1111–20.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Rocheleau T, Ndukum T, Macklin C, Hertzberg JB, Clerk AA, Schwab KC. Preparation and detection of a mechanical resonator near the ground state of motion. Nature. 2010 Jan;463(7277):72–5.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Linton CM, Evans DV. The interaction of waves with arrays of vertical circular cylinders. J Fluid Mech. 1990 Jun;215:549–69.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Twersky V. Multiple scattering of radiation by an arbitrary configuration of parallel cylinders. J Acoust Soc Am. 1952 Jan;24(1):42–6.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Wang X, Zhang XG, Yu Q, Harmon BN. Multiple-scattering theory for electromagnetic waves. Phys Rev B. 1993 Feb 15;47(8):4161–7.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Záviška F. Über die Beugung elektromagnetischer Wellen an parallelen, unendlich langen Kreiszylindern. Ann Phys. 1913;345(5):1023–56.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Sigalas MM, Garcıa N. Theoretical study of three dimensional elastic band gaps with the finite-difference time-domain method. J Appl Phys. 2000 Mar 15;87(6):3122–5.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Kafesaki M, Economou EN. Multiple-scattering theory for three-dimensional periodic acoustic composites. Phys Rev B. 1999 Nov 1;60(17):11993–2001.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Mei J, Liu Z, Shi J, Tian D. Theory for elastic wave scattering by a two-dimensional periodical array of cylinders: an ideal approach for band-structure calculations. Phys Rev B. 2003 Jun 23;67(24):245107.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Psarobas IE, Stefanou N, Modinos A. Phononic crystals with planar defects. Phys Rev B. 2000 Sep 1;62(9):5536–40.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Tieliang S, Longsheng G. Transportation theory of multiple scattering and its application to seismic coda wave of impulse source. Science in China Series B-Chemistry, Biological, Agricultural, Medical & Earth Sciences. 1988 Dec 10;31(12):1503–14.Google Scholar
  45. 45.
    Boardman A. Pioneers in metamaterials: John pendry and victor veselago. J Opt. 2010 Dec 1;13(2):020401.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Pendry JB, Holden AJ, Robbins DJ, Stewart WJ. Magnetism from conductors and enhanced nonlinear phenomena. IEEE transactions on microwave theory and techniques. 1999 Nov;47(11):2075–84.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Hakansson A, Sánchez-Dehesa J, Sanchis L. Inverse design of photonic crystal devices. IEEE Journal on selected areas in communications. 2005 Jul;23(7):1365–71.Google Scholar
  48. 48.
    Castiñeira-Ibáñez S, Romero-García V, Sánchez-Pérez JV, Garcia-Raffi LM. Overlapping of acoustic bandgaps using fractal geometries. EPL (Europhysics Letters). 2010 Nov 15;92(2):24007.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Romero-García V, Krynkin A, Garcia-Raffi LM, Umnova O, Sánchez-Pérez JV. Multi-resonant scatterers in sonic crystals: locally multi-resonant acoustic metamaterial. J Sound Vib. 2013 Jan 7;332(1):184–98.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Romero-García V, Krynkin A, Garcia-Raffi LM, Umnova O, Sánchez-Pérez JV. Multi-resonant scatterers in sonic crystals: locally multi-resonant acoustic metamaterial. Journal of Sound and Vibration. 2013 987 Jan 7;332(1):184–98.Google Scholar
  51. 51.
    Romero-García V, Sánchez-Pérez JV, García-Raffi LM, Herrero JM, García-Nieto S, Blasco X. Hole distribution in phononic crystals: design and optimization. J Acoust Soc Am. 2009 Jun;125(6):3774–83.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    Castiñeira-Ibáñez S, Rubio C, Romero-García V, Sánchez-Pérez JV, García-Raffi LM. Design, manufacture and characterization of an acoustic barrier made of multi-phenomena cylindrical scatterers arranged in a fractal-based geometry. Archives of Acoustics. 2012 Dec 1;37(4):455–62.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    Castiñeira-Ibáñez S, Rubio C, Redondo J, Sánchez-Pérez JV. Quantitative characterization of bandgap properties of sets of isolated acoustic scatterers arranged using fractal geometries. Appl Phys Express. 2014 Mar 10;7(4):042201.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    Castiñeira-Ibañez S, Rubio C, Sánchez-Pérez JV. Environmental noise control during its transmission phase to protect buildings. Design model for acoustic barriers based on arrays of isolated scatterers. Building and Environment. 2015 Nov 1;93:179–85.Google Scholar
  55. 55.
    Sanchez-Perez JV, Rubio C, Martinez-Sala R, Sanchez-Grandia R, Gomez V. Acoustic barriers based on periodic arrays of scatterers. Appl Phys Lett. 2002 Dec 30;81(27):5240–2.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    Morandi F, Miniaci M, Marzani A, Barbaresi L, Garai M. Standardised acoustic characterisation of sonic crystals noise barriers: sound insulation and reflection properties. Appl Acoust. 2016 Dec 15;114:294–306.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    Mandelbrot BB. The fractal geometry of nature. New York: WH freeman; 1982 Aug 15.Google Scholar
  58. 58.
    Schafer RM. The tuning of the world: Toward a theory of soundscape design.Google Scholar
  59. 59.
    Negahdari H, Javadpour S, Moattar F, Negahdari H. Risk assessment of noise pollution by analyzing the level of sound loudness resulting from central traffic in Shiraz. Environmental Health Engineering and Management Journal. 2018 Nov 20.Google Scholar
  60. 60.
    Penrose R, Jorgensen PE. The road to reality: a complete guide to the laws of the universe. Math Intell. 2006;28(3):59–61.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. 61.
    Pickover CA. The Physics Book: From the Big Bang to Quantum Resurrection, 250 Milestones in the History of Physics: Sterling Pub.; 2011.Google Scholar
  62. 62.
    ohn S. Strong localization of photons in certain disordered dielectric superlattices. Phys Rev Lett. 1987;58(23):2486.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. 63.
    Chen YY, Ye Z. Theoretical analysis of acoustic stop bands in two-dimensional periodic scattering arrays. Phys Rev E. 2001 Aug 29;64(3):036616.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. 64.
    Trégourès N, Hennino R, Lacombe C, Shapiro NM, Margerin L, Campillo M, et al. Multiple scattering of seismic waves. Ultrasonics. 2002 May 1;40(1–8):269–74.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. 65.
    Wu RS, Aki K. Introduction: seismic wave scattering in three-dimensionally heterogeneous earth. InScattering and attenuations of seismic waves, part I 1988 (pp. 1-6). Birkhäuser, Basel.Google Scholar
  66. 66.
    Harris CM. Handbook of acoustical measurements and noise control. New York: McGraw-Hill; 1991 Jun.Google Scholar
  67. 67.
    Chen S, Jiang Y. The acoustic property study of polyurethane foam with addition of bamboo leaves particles. Polym Compos. 2018 Apr;39(4):1370–81.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. 68.
    Elford DP, Chalmers L, Kusmartsev FV, Swallowe GM. Matryoshka locally resonant sonic crystal. J Acoust Soc Am. 2011 Nov;130(5):2746–55.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. 69.
    EN C. 5: road traffic noise reducing devices-test method for determining the acoustic performance-part 5: intrinsic characteristics–in-situ values of sound reflection under direct sound field conditions. CEN. Brussels, Belgium. 2012.Google Scholar
  70. 70.
    Scarpa F, Bullough WA, Lumley P. Trends in acoustic properties of iron particle seeded auxetic polyurethane foam. Proc Inst Mech Eng C J Mech Eng Sci. 2004 Feb 1;218(2):241–4.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. 71.
    Botteldooren D, De Coensel B, Van Renterghem T, Dekoninck L, Gillis D. The urban soundscape–a different perspective. Sustainable mobility in Flanders: The livable city. 2008:177–204.Google Scholar
  72. 72.
    John S, Chou MY, Cohen MH, Soukoulis CM. Density of states for an electron in a correlated Gaussian random potential: theory of the Urbach tail. Phys Rev B. 1988 Apr 15;37(12):6963–76.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. 73.
    Ashcroft NW, Mermin DN. Solid State Physics (Thomson Learning, Toronto, 1976). Google Scholar.:430–3.Google Scholar
  74. 74.
    Party BT, Begin M, Bakunin M, vos Savant M, Crichton M, Snow M, Shinkai M, Saint-Michel M, Barney M, Rosenberg M, Teresa M. Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.Google Scholar
  75. 75.
    Rayleigh JW. The theory of sound. Macmillan; 1896.Google Scholar
  76. 76.
    Pfretzschner J, Rodriguez RM. Acoustic properties of rubber crumbs. Polym Test. 1999 Apr 1;18(2):81–92.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. 77.
    Parker G. Effective noise barrier design and specification. Proceedings from ACOUSTICS 2006.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Hadi Negahdari
    • 1
  • Sirus Javadpour
    • 2
    Email author
  • Faramarz Moattar
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Environmental Engineering,Faculty of Natural Resources and Environment,Science and Research BranchIslamic Azad UniversityTehranIran
  2. 2.Department of Materials Science and Engineering,School of EngineeringShiraz UniversityShirazIran

Personalised recommendations