Advertisement

The characteristics of pollution in the big industrial cities of Kazakhstan by the example of Almaty

  • Nazhmetdinova Aiman
  • Sarmanbetova Gulnaz
  • Magai Alena
Research Article
  • 28 Downloads

Abstract

Background

Environmental pollution is a problem in the most industrial cities, including Almaty. These cities are frequently overpopulated and hazardous industrial facilities often have a negative impact on public health. The purpose of this study was to determine the characteristics of pollution in Almaty city and assess possible impact on a human by comparing obtained results with sanitary and hygienic standards. (Hygienic standards (HS) 2.1.7.2042–06. AAC of chemical substances in soil Russia). We used both local standards, such as ST RK 2011–2010 "Water, Food, Stern and Tobacco Products. Determination of Chlororganic Pesticides" and International Standards (Customs Union) Sanitary Regulations and Norms number 4630–88.

Methods

The study was conducted by sampling air, water, and soil and subsequently analyzing them via laboratory and instrumental methods.

Results

Heavy metals were detected via a high-precision method of atomic absorption spectroscopy. Noise was measured on location. Geographic regions with characteristic types of pollution were discovered. It was found that the main polluting factors were as follows: air pollution – carbon monoxide, suspended solids in the form of dust, lead, and noise; water – ammonium compounds, organic substances (assessed based on the chemical oxygen demand (COD) parameter), polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB); soil – lead and PCB. The amount of suspended solids in the air exceeded standard levels by as much as 13.6 times.

Conclusions

We visualized obtained data (using StatSoft Statistica v6.0 Rus and Exhibit 3.0 (MIT Simile Project) Softwares) for three districts of Almaty, which allowed us to compare the results efficiently. The results show the need for a detailed study on the optimization of the state of the environment and public health. Plans for further studies include development of a system that would enable reducing the negative impact of industrial facilities on public health and the environment in general.

Keywords

Piedmont regions Environmental pollution Carbon monoxide Suspended solids Heavy metals Noise pollution 

Notes

Author contributions

All authors read and approved the final manuscript.

Compliance with ethical standards

Competing interests

The authors declare that they have no competing interests.

References

  1. 1.
    Bush B, Snow J, Connor S, Koblintz R. Polychlorinated biphenyl congeners (PCBs), p,p′-DDE and hexachlorobenzene in human milk in three areas of upstate New York. Arch Environ Contam Toxicol. 1985;14(4):443–50.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Zhou M, He G, Liu Y, Yin P, Li Y, Kan H, et al. The associations between ambient air pollution and adult respiratory mortality in 32 major Chinese cities, 2006–2010. Environ Res. 2015;137:278–86.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Guerreiro CBB, Foltescu V, de Leeuw F. Air quality status and trends in Europe. Atmos Environ. 2014;98:376–84.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Guagliardi I, Cicchella D, de Rosa R, Buttafuoco G. Assessment of lead pollution in topsoils of a southern Italy area: analysis of urban and peri-urban environment. J Environ Sci. 2015;33(1):179–87.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Pons-Branchu E, Ayrault S, Roy-Barman M, Bordier L, Borst W, Branchu P, et al. Three centuries of heavy metal pollution in Paris (France) recorded by urban speleothems. Sci Total Environ. 2015;518:86–96.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Nugumanova L, Frey M, Yemelina N, Yugay S. Environmental problems and policies in Kazakhstan: Air pollution, waste and water, IOS Working Papers 2017; 366.Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Ministry of Energy of Republic of Kazakhstan. National Report. The State of Environment in the Republic of Kazakhstan. 2015. http://energo.gov.kz/index.php?id=2087. Accessed 7 Aug 2016.
  8. 8.
    The statistical collection, Almaty, 1990: 6–8.Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Health of the population of the Republic of Kazakhstan and the activities of the health organizations in 2016. The statistical collection. Astana, 2016: 37–38.Google Scholar
  10. 10.
  11. 11.
    Sultanova R, Konkulzhaeva N, Anisimova N. Pollution of the environment in Almaty and their impact on public health, IX International Scientific and Practical Conference “Scientific community of students of the XXI century”. Nat Sci. 2013;4:12–114.Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    The Ministry of Health of the Republic of Kazakhstan. Statistical collection. Health of the population of the Republic of Kazakhstan and activities of health care organizations in 2015, 2016.Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Kurlandsky BA. Features of revealing the causes of environmentally caused diseases among children. Hyg Sanit. 2011;5:45.Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Zasorina BV. An assessment of the carcinogenic risk to the health of the population of urbanized areas under the influence of environmental factors. University Dissertation, 2009: 8–11.Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Maistrenko VN, Kruglov EA, Amirova ZK, et al. Polychlorinated dioxins and dibenzofurans in the environment and food products of the Republic of Bashkortostan. Russia Chemosphere. 1998;3:102–13.Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Aiman N, Adlet K, Gulnaz S, et al. Pollution with polychlorinated biphenyls of the water and the soil in Almaty. Electronic J Biol. 2017;13:3.Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Hygienic Standards GN 2.1.7.2041–06, Maximum Permissible Levels of Chemical Substances in the Soil.Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Ryan JJ, Levesque D, Panopio LG, Sun WF, Masuda Y, Kuroki H. Elimination of polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) from human blood in the Yusho and Yu-Cheng rice oil poisonings. Arch Environ Contam Toxicol. 1993;24(4):504–12.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Naert C, Piette M, Bruneel N, Van Peteghem C. Occurrence of polychlorinated biphenyls and polybrominated diphenyl ethers in Belgian human adipose tissue samples. Arch Environ Contam Toxicol. 2006;50(2):290–6.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Banerjee D, Das PP, Foujdar A. Association between road traffic noise and prevalence of coronary heart disease. Environ Monit Assess. 2014;186(5):2885–93.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Bochkov AS, Zubkov VM. Regulation of the content of chemicals in soils and the impact of pollution on public health: VII International Student Electronic Scientific Conference. Student Scientific Forum 2015, Moscow, 2015.Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Lewtas J. Air pollution combustion emissions: Characterization of causative agents and mechanisms associated with cancer, reproductive, and cardiovascular effects. Mutat Res. 2007;636(1–3):95–133.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Arnika (n.d.). Kazakhstan: chemical safety and public participation. Arnika. http://english.arnika.org/kazakhstan. Accessed 20 Dec 2016.
  24. 24.
    Babisch W. Cardiovascular effects of noise. Noise Health. 2011;13(52):201–4.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Basner M, Babisch W, Davis A, Brink M, Clark C, Janssen S, et al. Auditory and non-auditory effects of noise on health. Lancet. 2014;383(925):1325–32.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Kageyama T, Kabuto M, Nitta H, Kurokawa Y, Taira K, Suzuki S, et al. A population study on risk factors for insomnia among adult Japanese women: a possible effect of road traffic volume. Sleep. 1997;20(11):963–71.Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    Stansfeld SA, Matheson MP. Noise pollution: non-auditory effects on health. Br Med Bull. 2003;68(1):243–57.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Nazhmetdinova Aiman
    • 1
  • Sarmanbetova Gulnaz
    • 1
  • Magai Alena
    • 1
  1. 1.RSE on PVC “Scientific and Practical Centre for Sanitary and Epidemiological Expertise and Monitoring” the Ministry of Health of The Republic of KazakhstanAlmatyKazakhstan

Personalised recommendations