Determination of radon exhalation rates in soil samples using sealed can technique and CR-39 detectors

Abstract

Background

In this study, the so-called sealed can technique dosimeters have been used to determine the radon exhalation rates in soil samples collected from different sites in Bethlehem region- Palestine.

Methods

For the measurement of radon concentration emanated from these samples, alpha-sensitive, Solid State Nuclear Track Detectors (SSNTD’s) have been used. A total of 82 soil samples were collected simultaneously.

Results

It was found that the radon concentrations in these soil samples varied from 19.1 Bqm−3 to 572.9 Bqm−3 with an average value of 145.0 Bqm−3. The radon exhalation rate in these collected samples also varied from 6.9 mBqm−2 h−1 (0.26 mBqkg−1 h−1) to 207.2 mBqm−2 h−1 (7.84 mBqkg−1 h−1) with an a total average value of 52.2 mBqm−2 h−1 (1.97 mBqkg−1 h−1).

Conclusions

All the values of radium content in all samples under test were found to be quite lower than the corresponding the global value 30 Bqkg−1. The present results show that the radon concentration and the resulting doses in all soil samples are below the allowed limit from ICRP. The radiological health implication to the population that may result from these doses is found to be low. The measurements have been taken as representing a baseline database of values of these radionuclides in the soils in the area. The results were compared with national and worldwide results.

This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.

Fig. 1
Fig. 2
Fig. 3
Fig. 4
Fig. 5

References

  1. 1.

    Haijing J, Liangquan G, Yanchang L, Yi G. Preliminary study on a regional radon concentration in surface soil prediction method. Prog Nucl Scie Technol. 2011;1:364–7.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  2. 2.

    Chauhan R. Radon exhalation rates from stone and soil samples of Aravali hills in India. Iran J Radiat Res. 2011;9(1):57–61.

    Google Scholar 

  3. 3.

    Shashikumar T, Ragini N, Chandrashekara M, Paramesh L. Studies on radon in soil, its concentration in the atmosphere and gamma exposure rate around Mysore city, India. Curr Sci. 2008;94(9):1180–5.

    Google Scholar 

  4. 4.

    Qiuju G, Kainan S, Jianping C. Methodology study on evaluation of radon flux from soil in China. Radiat Prot Dosim. 2004;112(2):291–6. https://doi.org/10.1093/rpd/nch387.

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  5. 5.

    Dabayneh K, Awawdeh K. Measurements of 222Rn concentration levels and calculates exhalation rates in some dwellings of Dura City – Palestine. Al-Azhar J Science. 2007;18(2):17–28.

    Google Scholar 

  6. 6.

    Abu-Samreh M, Thabayneh K, Eliayn M. Assessment of indoor radon levels in dwellings of Beit Fajjar city, Palestine. Hebron University Res J (A). 2012;6:47–60.

    Google Scholar 

  7. 7.

    Leghrouz AA, Abu-Samreh MM, Shehadeh AK. Measurements of indoor radon concentration levels in dwellings in Bethlehem, Palestine. Health Phys. 2013;104(2):163–70.

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  8. 8.

    Dabayneh K. Radioactivity measurements in different types of fabricated building materials used in Palestine. Arab J Nuclear Sci Applic. 2007;40(3):207–19.

    Google Scholar 

  9. 9.

    Dabayneh K, Sroor A, Abdel-Haleem S. Environmental nuclear studies of natural and manmade radioactivity at Hebron region in Palestine. Al-Quds Univ J Res Stud. 2008;12:23–42.

    Google Scholar 

  10. 10.

    Dabayneh K, Mashal L, Hasan F. Radioactivity concentration in soil samples in the southern part of the west bank-Palestine. Rad Prot Dos. 2008;131(2):265–71.

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  11. 11.

    Dabayneh K. 222Rnconcentration level measurements and exhalation rates in different types of building materials used in Palestinian buildings. Isotope Radiat Res J. 2008;40(2):277–89.

    Google Scholar 

  12. 12.

    Thabayneh K, Jazzar M. Natural radioactivity levels and estimation of radiation exposure in environmental soil samples from Tulkarem province – Palestine. Open J Soil Sci. 2012;2:7–16.

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  13. 13.

    Singh J, Singh H, Singh S, Bajwa B. Uranium, radium and radon exhalation studies in some soil samples using plastic track detectors. Indian J Phys. 2009;83(8):1147–53.

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  14. 14.

    Algaim HR, Dakhil RM, Al-Khalifa IJ. Determination of radon and thoron activity in the soil by using solid state nuclear track detectors (SSNTDs), passive technique. Adv Appl Sci Res. 2012;3(2):950–61.

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  15. 15.

    Nabil M, Hamed A. Measurement of radon concentration in soil at North Gaza. M. Sc thesis: Islamic University of Gaza; 2005.

    Google Scholar 

  16. 16.

    El-Ghossain MO, Abu Saleh RM. Radiation measurements in soil of Nusirate in the middle of Gaza-strip using nuclear track detector CR-39 and Electra plus. J Al-Aqsa Univ. 2006;10:273–80.

    Google Scholar 

  17. 17.

    El-Ghossain MO, Abu Saleh RM. Radiation measurements in soil in the middle of Gaza-strip using different type of detectors. Islamic Univ J (Series of Natural Studies and Engineering). 2007;15(1):23–37.

    Google Scholar 

  18. 18.

    Shoqwara F, Dwaikat N, Saffarini G. Measurement of radon exhalation rate from building materials. Res Rev J Physics. 2013;2(1):10–9.

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  19. 19.

    PCBS. The Palestinian Central Bureau of Statistics. The Population, Housing and Establishment Census - 2007, Press conference on the preliminary findings, Ramallah, Palestine, 2008. http://www.pcbs.gov.ps

  20. 20.

    ARIJ. The Geographical Information System Unit (GIS); ARIJ, 2010.www.arij.org .

  21. 21.

    Hafez A, Hussein A, Rasheed N. A study of radon and thoron release from Egyptian building materials using polymeric nuclear track detectors. Appl Radiat Isot. 2001;54:291–8.

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  22. 22.

    Baykara O, Dogru M. Measurements of radon and uranium concentration in water and soil samples from east Anatolian active fault systems, Turkey. Radiat Meas. 2006;41:362–7.

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  23. 23.

    Youssef H, Embaby A, El-Farrash A, Laken H. Radon exhalation rate in surface soil of graduate's villages in West Nile delta, Egypt, using can technique. Int J Recent Sci Res. 2015;6(4):3440–6.

    Google Scholar 

  24. 24.

    Lawrence C, Akber R, Bollhofer A, Martin P. Radon-222 exhalation from open ground on and around a uranium mine in the wet–dry tropics. J Environ Radioact. 2009;100:1–8.

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  25. 25.

    Yousef HA, El-Farrash AH, Abu Ela A, Merza Q. Measurement of radon exhalation rate in some building materials using nuclear track detectors. World J Nucl Sci Technol. 2015;5:141–8. http://www.scirp.org/journal/wjnst

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  26. 26.

    Sarma HK. Radon activity and radon exhalation rates from some soil samples by using SSNTD. Int J Adv Res Elect, Electron Instrum Eng. 2013;2:2320–3765.

    Google Scholar 

  27. 27.

    Elzain A-EA. Estimation of soil gas radon concentration and the effective dose rate by using SSNTDs. Int J Sci Res Publ. 2015;5(2):1–5. www.ijsrp.org

    Google Scholar 

  28. 28.

    Elzain A-EA. Determination of radium concentration and radon exhalation rate in soil samples using CR-39. Adv Appl Sci Res. 2015;6(2):96–102. Available online at www.pelagiaresearchlibrary.com

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  29. 29.

    UNSCEAR, United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation, "Sources and effects on ionizing radiation". Report to the General Assembly, with Scientific Annexes. United Nations, New York, USA, 2000.

  30. 30.

    ICRP, International commission on radiological protection. "lung cancer risk from indoor exposures to radon daughters", a report of a task group of the ICRP publication 50, Oxford: Pergamon Press, 1987.

  31. 31.

    ShakirKhan M, Naqvi AH, Azam AS. Radium and radon exhalation studies of soil. Iran J Radiat Res. 2011;8(4):207–10.

    Google Scholar 

  32. 32.

    Abu Samreh M, Thabayneh K, Khrais F. Measurement of radioactivity concentration levels of natural radionuclides in soil samples from Bethlehem region – Palestine. Turkish J Eng Env Sci. 2014;38(2):113–25.

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  33. 33.

    ICRP, International Commission on Radiological Protection, "Protection Against Rn-222 at Home and at Work", Annals of the ICRP 65. Pergamon, Oxford, 1993.

  34. 34.

    WHO, World Health Organization. WHO handbook on indoor radon. A public health perspective. Switzerland: WHO Press, 2009.

  35. 35.

    Tawfiq NF, Jaleel J. Radon concentration in soil and radon exhalation rate at Al-Dora refinery and surrounding area in Baghdad. Detection. 2015;3:37–44. Published Online in Sci Res. http://www.scirp.org/journal/detection

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  36. 36.

    Mahur AK, Sharmab A, Sonkawaded RG, Senguptae D, Sharmac A, Prasada R. Measurement of radon exhalation rate in sand samples from Gopalpur and Rushikulya beach Orissa, Eastern India. Phys Procedia. 2015;80:140–3. Available online at www.sciencedirect.com

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  37. 37.

    Nasir T, Ahmad N. The effect of grain size on radon exhalation rate in soil samples of Dera Ismail Khan in Pakistan. J Basic Appl Sci. 2012;8:430–6.

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  38. 38.

    Farid SM. Indoor radon in dwellings of Jeddah city, Saudi Arabia and its correlations with the radium and radon exhalation rates from soil. Indoor Built Environ. 2016;25(1):269–78. https://doi.org/10.1177/1420326X14536749. ibe.sagepub.com

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  39. 39.

    Thabayneh KM. Determination of alpha particles concentration in some soil samples and the extent of their impact on health. Sains Malaysiana. 2016;45(5):699–707.

    CAS  Google Scholar 

Download references

Acknowledgements

I gratefully acknowledge the working staff in chemistry lab at Hebron University who’s helped me in the etching and washed the detectors before it readings.

Availability of data and material

Data sharing not applicable to this article as no datasets were generated or analyzed during the current study.

Author information

Affiliations

Authors

Contributions

KM Thabayneh distributed, collected and read the dosimeters, analyzed, wrote the text, reviewed and approved the final manuscript.

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Khalil M. Thabayneh.

Ethics declarations

Ethics approval and consent to participate

Not applicable.

Consent for publication

Not applicable.

Competing interests

The author declares that they have no competing interests.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Thabayneh, K.M. Determination of radon exhalation rates in soil samples using sealed can technique and CR-39 detectors. J Environ Health Sci Engineer 16, 121–128 (2018). https://doi.org/10.1007/s40201-018-0298-2

Download citation

Keywords

  • Radon exhalation rate
  • Can technique
  • Radium content
  • CR-39 detectors