Effect of sunlight exposure on phthalates migration from plastic containers to packaged juices

  • Noushin Rastkari
  • Maryam Zare Jeddi
  • Masud Yunesian
  • Reza Ahmadkhaniha
Research Article



Acidic juices such as lemon juice, vinegar and Verjuice are popular beverages regularly consumed by both children and adults. Various brands of different acidic juices in Iran markets are packaged in disposable plastic bottles. Some evidence suggests that phthalates may immigrate from plastic bottles.


In this research the influence of sunlight, type of container and storage time on the leaching of phthalates from packaging materials into selected juices was investigated, by analyzing the samples kept in different conditions, before and throughout 2, 4 and 6 months storage time.


The mean phthalate concentrations of the examined samples were determined to be between <LOD and 0.521 μg/L in verjuice, <LOD and 0.261 μg/L in lemon juice, <LOD and 0.599 μg/L in vinegar. DEP and DEHP showed the highest level of migration into acidic juices packed in plastic bottles.


Results of analyses before and after storage show that some storage conditions can increase the concentrations of DBP, DEHP and DEP in acidic juices. The results of this study indicate the possible leaching of phthalates from packages made of plastic materials into the contents.


Phthalate esters Migration Storage condition Plastic 



Polyethylene terephthalate


High density polyethylene


Phthalic acid esters


Diethyl phthalate


Dibutyl phthalate


Diethylhexyl phthalate


Dimethyl phthalate


Butyl benzyl phthalate


di-n-octyl phthalate


Internal standard



This research has been supported by Tehran University of Medical Sciences grant (project No. 92-01-46-21405). Hereby, the cooperation of the University and also Institute for Environmental Research (IER) is highly appreciated.

Authors’ contributions

NR, YM and MZJ participated in the design of the study. RA did the analyses, YM and MZJ interpreted the analyzed results. MZJ participated in sample collection. NR was the main investigator, supervised the work, drafted and revised the paper critically for important intellectual content and compiled the work in accordance to journal format. All authors have read and approved the final manuscript.

Compliance with ethical standards


Not applicable.

Ethics approval and consent to participate

Not applicable.

Consent for publication

Not applicable.

Competing interest

The authors declare that they have no competing interests.


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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Noushin Rastkari
    • 1
    • 2
  • Maryam Zare Jeddi
    • 2
  • Masud Yunesian
    • 3
    • 4
  • Reza Ahmadkhaniha
    • 5
  1. 1.Center for Water Quality Research, Institute for Environmental ResearchTehran University of Medical SciencesTehranIran
  2. 2.Center for Air Pollution Research (CAPR), Institute for Environmental Research (IER)Tehran University of Medical SciencesTehranIran
  3. 3.Department of Environmental Health Engineering, School of Public HealthTehran University of Medical SciencesTehranIran
  4. 4.Department of Research Methodology and Data Analysis, Institute for Environmental ResearchTehran University of Medical SciencesTehranIran
  5. 5.Department of Human Ecology, School of Public HealthTehran University of Medical SciencesTehranIran

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