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Association between dietary patterns and body composition in normal-weight subjects with metabolic syndrome


Background and aims

The development of metabolic syndrome (MetS) has been proposed to be related to dietary pattern and body compostion indexes. Diet is one of the most important lifestyle-related factors which may regulate the inflammatory process. Numerous individual foods and dietary patterns can have a valuable health effect that is associated with their anti-inflammatory properties. Here we aimed to investigate the association between body composition indexes and dietary patterns in individuals with metabolic syndrome who were nnormal for weight.

Methods and materials

Normal weight subjects with MetS were recruited as part of Survey of Ultraviolet Intake by Nutritional Approach (SUVINA). A validated food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) was used to determine dietary patterns that were: low-, or high in antioxidant; dietary inflammation index (DII) and health eating index (HEI) were also determined. Body composition indexes including basal metabolic rate (BMR), body free fat mass (BFFM), body fat mass (BFM), body fat percentage (BFP), trunk fat and total body water (TBW) were measured using a InBody body composition analyser. A P value <0.05 was considered significant.


A total 77 individuals including 29 males and 48 females were recruited into the study. A high-antioxidant dietary pattern was significantly correlated with BMR (p = 0.002), BFFM (p = 0.007) and TBW (p = 0.002). There was no significant relationship between body compostion with a low-antioxidant dietary pattern, DII and HEI. After adjusting for age and sex, our findings showed that a high-antioxidant dietary pattern were independently associated with BMR, BFFM and TBW.


A high-antioxidant dietary pattern was independently associated with decreased BMR, BFFM and TBW, while no association was found between body composition indexes and DII and HEI in normal weight paticipants with MetS.

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Correspondence to Habibollah Esmaily or Majid Ghayour-Mobarhan.

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Mohammad Rashismayvan and Payam Sharifan are co-first authors.

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Rashidmayvan, M., Sharifan, P., Darroudi, S. et al. Association between dietary patterns and body composition in normal-weight subjects with metabolic syndrome. J Diabetes Metab Disord 21, 735–741 (2022).

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  • Metabolic syndrome
  • Body composition
  • High-antioxidant pattern
  • Low-antioxidant pattern
  • Dietary inflammatory index
  • Healthy eating index