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Factors related to glycemic control in children and adolescents with type 1 diabetes mellitus in Isfahan, Iran

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Glycemic control is traditionally evaluated by monitoring of hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c). This study aims to explore factors related to glycemic control among pediatrics with type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM).


This cross‐sectional study was conducted among 454 students aged 6–18 years with T1DM in 2018. Demographic and disease related information were collected by a validated questionnaire. Generalized Linear Models (GLM) were used to investigate the association of explanatory variables with HbA1c concentration.


The mean (SD) age of the participants was 11.7(± 3.3) years. The overall prevalence of suboptimal glycemic control was 85.5% (HbA1c ≥ 7%). Results showed that post pubertal children experienced a significant decrease in HbA1c levels compared to prepubertal children (β =—0.83, p = 0.003). Underweight children had an increase of 1.32% in HBA1c concentration compared with normal weight children (β = 1.32, P = 0.007). We also found that participants with passive smoking had higher HBA1c levels than those without (β = 0.536, P = 0.022).


The results indicated that age, BMI and passive smoking and were significantly associated with HbA1c levels. It is suggested that glycemic control is related to multiple factors and the interaction of these factors with each other may have positive or negative effects on it which should be investigated in future studies. Improved understanding in this area could lead to prevention of deterioration in glycemic control.

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The authors wish to thank the Deputy of Health Services at the Isfahan University of Medical Sciences for their collaboration with this research.


This work was funded by the National Institute for Medical Research Development (grant NO: 958386).

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Correspondence to Nafiseh Mozafarian or Mohammad Reza Maracy.

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This study was approved in ethics committee in National Institute for Medical Research Development (research project number;958386).

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Hashemipour, M., Hovsepian, S., Mozafarian, N. et al. Factors related to glycemic control in children and adolescents with type 1 diabetes mellitus in Isfahan, Iran. J Diabetes Metab Disord 20, 1281–1288 (2021).

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