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Effects of raw red beetroot consumption on metabolic markers and cognitive function in type 2 diabetes patients

Abstract

Objectives

This study aimed to investigate the effects of raw red beetroot consumption on metabolic markers and cognitive function in type 2 diabetes patients.

Methods

In a quasi-experimental study, 44 type 2 diabetes patients (57 ± 4.5 years) consumed raw red beetroot (100 g, daily), for 8 weeks. Metabolic markers including body weight, glucose and lipid profile parameters, inflammatory and oxidative stress markers, paraoxonase-1 activity, hepatic enzymes, blood pressure and cognitive function were measured at the beginning and end of 8 weeks.

Results

Raw red beetroot consumption resulted in a significant decrease in fasting blood sugar (FBS) levels (−13.53 mg/dL), glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c)(−0.34%), apolipoproteinB100 (ApoB100) (−8.25 mg/dl), aspartate aminotransferase (AST) (−1.75 U/L), alanine aminotransferase (ALT) (−3.7 U/L), homocysteine (−7.88 μmol/l), systolic (−0.73 mmHg) and diastolic blood pressure (−0.34 mmHg), anda significant increase in total antioxidant capacity (TAC) (105 μmol/L) and cognitive function tests (all P values <0.05). Other variables did not change significantly after the intervention.

Conclusions

Raw red beetroot consumption for 8 weeks in T2DM patients has beneficial impacts on cognitive function, glucose metabolism and other metabolic markers.

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Fig. 1

Abbreviations

FBS:

fasting blood sugar

HbA1c:

Glycosylated Hemoglobin

ApoB100:

Apolipoprotein B100

AST:

Aspartate Aminotransferase

ALT:

Alanine Aminotransferase

TAC:

total antioxidant capacity

T2DM:

Type 2 diabetes mellitus

NO:

nitric oxide

BMI:

body mass index

TAG:

triacylglycerol

HOMA-IR:

Homeostatic Model Assessment for Insulin Resistance

hs-CRP:

high sensitive C-reactive protein

PON1:

Paraoxonase-1

Hcy:

homocysteine

BP:

Blood pressure

IPAQ:

International Physical Activity Questionnaire

SBP:

systolic blood pressure

DBP:

diastolic blood pressure

MRI:

Magnetic resonance imaging

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Acknowledgements

We thank the participants for their cooperation and participation in this study. This research is a part of the M.Sc. thesis in nutrition sciences, which was financially supported by the Vice Chancellor of Research, Iran University of Medical Sciences (Tehran, Iran).

Funding sources

This research was funded by Iran University of Medical Sciences.

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All data generated or analyzed during this study are included in this article.

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Contributions

MA and MV designed this study. MA, LSB, and FA participated in the conduction of the study. AFH analyzed the data. BA drafted the manuscript. All authors read and approved the final manuscript.

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Correspondence to Mohammadreza Vafa.

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The protocol of this study was approved by the Medical Ethics Committee of Iran University of Medical Sciences, is in conformity with the declaration of Helsinki (approval number IR.IUMS.REC 1395.932132004) and was registered at the Iranian Registry of Clinical Trials (IRCT registration number IRCT201612262365N16) which is available at:http://irct.ir/user/trial/20288/view. Written informed consent was obtained from all subjects.

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Aliahmadi, M., Amiri, F., Bahrami, L.S. et al. Effects of raw red beetroot consumption on metabolic markers and cognitive function in type 2 diabetes patients. J Diabetes Metab Disord 20, 673–682 (2021). https://doi.org/10.1007/s40200-021-00798-z

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Keywords

  • Raw red beetroot
  • Type 2 diabetes
  • Metabolic markers
  • Cognitive function