Self-care and related factors in patients with type II diabetes in Iran

Abstract

Purpose

To assess Self-care and related factors in patients with type II diabetes in Iran.

Methods

This descriptive cross-sectional study was performed on 100 patients with type II diabetes who were referred to specialized diabetes centers related to Arak University of Medical Sciences in Iran. Data collection was done using a researcher-made questionnaire. The questionnaire consisted of three parts (the first part was demographic information, the second part was self-care behaviors such as diet, exercise, control, treatment, and prevention of complications over the past seven days, and the third part was factors influencing patients’ self-care behaviors). The inclusion criteria were; patients 18–80 years of age with a diagnosis of type 2 diabetes, at least one year passed of diabetes diagnosis, no chronic diseases other than those related to diabetes, had awareness of the diagnosis, had no hearing and speech impairments, and no mental illnesses. The exclusion criteria was the patient’s failure to answer all questions of the questionnaire. Data analysis was performed using SPSS software version 16, and using descriptive statistics and Pearson test, independent t-test, one-way analysis of variance and Spearman test.

Results

The mean score of self-care in patients was 84.41 ± 11.75 and at the intermediate level. Spearman correlation coefficient test results showed a significant relationship between self-care behavior and gender (p = 0.001), and insurance type (p = 0.035). Also, men had higher average self-care compared to women (p = 0.001). The highest average score of self-care was in Adherence to medication and the lowest score was in exercise and physical activity.

Conclusion

Due to the low self-care score in exercise and physical activity and the lack of periodic renal examinations, planning and educational interventions in all aspects of self-care, especially in terms of sports and physical activity, and periodic renal examinations are essential.

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Acknowledgments

The authors wish to express their appreciation to the Vice Chancellor for Research, Arak University of Medical Sciences, for funding this project, and would also like to thank diabetic patients and the staff of diabetes centers in Arak.

Funding

This work was supported by the Vice-Chancellor of Research Department of Arak University of Medical Sciences.

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Correspondence to Fatemeh Mehrabi.

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Nejat, N., Khan Mohamadi Hezave, A., Aghae Pour, S.M. et al. Self-care and related factors in patients with type II diabetes in Iran. J Diabetes Metab Disord (2021). https://doi.org/10.1007/s40200-021-00791-6

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Keywords

  • Self-care behaviors
  • Type II diabetes
  • Iran