The effect of probiotics on lipid profile & anthropometric indices in diabetic nephropathy; a systematic review and meta-analysis of clinical trials



Recent trials have demonstrated the possible improvements in lipid profile & anthropometric indices after probiotics supplementation. We aimed to reanalyze the related literature to explore the efficacy of probiotics in Diabetic Nephropathy (DN) patients.


PubMed, Embase, Web of science, google scholar, Scopus, and Cochrane Library databases were systematically searched to find the related data on diabetic nephropathy population. All Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) that investigated the effect of probiotics on serum lipid markers (High-Density Lipoprotein [HDL], Triglyceride, Total Cholesterol, TC-to-HDL ratio, Low-Density Lipoprotein, Very Low-Density Lipoprotein) and anthropometric indices (Body Weight, Body Mass Index, waist-to-hip ratio) were included (PROSPERO No.CRD42020186189). Meta-analysis was performed using the random-effect model.


Of 156 studies, seven were eligible for inclusion. Lipid biomarkers had a marginal reduction (except for HDL; WMD = 2.59 mg/dl; 95% CI = -0.28, 5.47; P = 0.077); whereas anthropometric indices increased in a non-significant manner.


There is limited evidence to support the efficacy of probiotics for the modulation of lipid profile and anthropometric indices in DN patients.

Graphical abstract

Probiotics did not beneficial effect on lipid profile & anthropometric markers in Diabetic Nephropathy; anyway, more trials should be conducted.

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This research was supported by Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan, Iran.

PROSPERO Registration ID. CRD42020186189.

Authors’ contributions (CRediT author statement)

Amir Reza Moravejolahkami: Conceptualization, Investigation, Methodology, Software, Validation, Formal analysis, Writing - Original Draft.

Mohammad Ali Hojjati Kermani: Visualization, Project administration, Writing - Review & Editing.

Zakiyeh Balouch Zehi: Data Curation, Resources, Writing - Review & Editing.

Seyed Mohammad Sadegh Mirenayat: Writing - Review & Editing.

Marjan Mansourian: Supervision, Funding acquisition.

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Correspondence to Amir Reza Moravejolahkami or Marjan Mansourian.

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Moravejolahkami, A., Hojjati Kermani, M., Balouch Zehi, Z. et al. The effect of probiotics on lipid profile & anthropometric indices in diabetic nephropathy; a systematic review and meta-analysis of clinical trials. J Diabetes Metab Disord (2021).

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  • Probiotics
  • Lipoproteins
  • Body weights and measures
  • Diabetic nephropathies
  • Meta-analysis
  • Systematic review