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Elevated serum sialic acids, a potent biomarker of alloxan-induced type 1 diabetes in dogs by ethanolic extract of Anogeissus leiocarpus

Abstract

Objectives

This study investigated serum sialic acids for a predictive and diagnostic biomarker of diabetes mellitus (DM) in dogs and its prognostic value with ethanolic extract of Anogeissus leiocarpus.

Design

Four groups of 3 dogs were used; non-diabetic controls (ND), diabetic-untreated (DU), diabetic insulin-treated (DI) and diabetic extract-treated (DE). Free serum sialic acids (FSSA) and erythrocyte surface sialic acids (ESSA) were assayed in all groups, pre-and post-induction of hyperglycaemia and results were presented as means ± standard error of means (SEM) and subjected to ANOVA using Tukey’s post-hoc tests with GraphPad Prism® statistical package.

Results

FSSA increased in DU and plateaued at third week (61.8 ± 0.41 μg/ml), (P < 0.002) with additional 38.2 μg/ml (62%) generated, coinciding with hyperglycaemia. FSSA of DI increased but declined to 22.3 ± 1.55 μg/ml. Extract of Anogeissus leiocarpus effectively modulated FSSA in DE as increased value declined to 21.4 ± 0.78 μg/ml. Pre-induction DU ESSA (8.27 ± 0.11 μg/ml) significantly (P < 0.002) decreased by third week (2.33 ± 1.49 μg/ml), coinciding with hyperglycaemia. Strong negative correlation coefficient (r = −0.92) occurred between DU’s FSSA and ESSA and ND (P < 0.03). Sialic acid expression in dog’s insulin dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM) is 18% lower than normal. Extract of A. leiocarpus restored ESSA completely. ESSA cleaved in DU, 5.94 μg/ml (72%), could not account for the extra FSSA (32.26 μg/ml); liver and kidneys are contributors.

Conclusion

FSSA predicts canine DM.

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Acknowledgements

The authors acknowledge the support of the Faculty of Veterinary Medicine Post Graduate Committee, Ahmadu Bello University and Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Life Sciences, Ahmadu Bello University and Ahmadu Bello University Teaching Hospital Shika.

Funding

This study was partly funded by Tertiary Education Trust Fund (TETFUND) of Nigeria.

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Correspondence to King Akpofure Nelson Esievo.

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All applicable international, national and institutional guidelines for the care and use of animals were followed. This article contains studies with animal subjects performed by the authors and ethical approval for this study was provided by Ahmadu Bello University Committee on Animal Use and Care (ABUCAUC) (Ethical clearance No ABUCAC/2019/16).

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Esievo, K.A.N., Num-Adom, S.M., Adamu, S. et al. Elevated serum sialic acids, a potent biomarker of alloxan-induced type 1 diabetes in dogs by ethanolic extract of Anogeissus leiocarpus. J Diabetes Metab Disord 20, 179–186 (2021). https://doi.org/10.1007/s40200-021-00726-1

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Keywords

  • Diabetes
  • Sialic acid
  • Biomarker
  • Anogeissus leiocarpus