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Type 2 diabetes mellitus: pathogenesis and genetic diagnosis

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Abstract

Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is a heterogeneous condition that is related to both defective insulin secretion and peripheral insulin resistance. Beta cells are the major organ for secreting insulin hence, it is important to maintain an adequate beta-cell mass in response to various changes. Insulin resistance is a major cause of T2DM leads to elevated free fatty acid (FFA) levels which increases beta-cell mass and insulin secretion to compensate for insulin insensitivity. Chronic increase of plasma FFA levels results in disturbances in lipid metabolism, which contributes to decreased beta-cell function and lipotoxicity thus promoting T2DM. In the present review, we have discussed the process of beta-cell destruction, the role of genes in contributing to the fast increase in the progression of T2DM in detail. More than 130 variants in various T2DM susceptibility and candidate genes have been discovered to be associated with T2DM. Still, these variants elucidate only a small amount of total heritability of T2DM. Further, there is also an inventory of presently used therapeutic tools and a review of novel therapeutic approaches like incretin-based therapies or sodium-glucose transporter-2 inhibitors. Additionally, providing a concise but comprehensive update, this review will be essential to every clinician involved in the treatment of diabetes mellitus.

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Correspondence to Mohd Wamique.

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Himanshu, D., Ali, W. & Wamique, M. Type 2 diabetes mellitus: pathogenesis and genetic diagnosis. J Diabetes Metab Disord 19, 1959–1966 (2020). https://doi.org/10.1007/s40200-020-00641-x

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