It is unknown whether inflammation plays a role in metabolic dysfunction on ketosis-prone diabetes (KPD). We aimed to assess the inflammatory profile in sub-Saharan African patients with KPD during the acute ketotic phase as well as during non-ketotic hyperglycemic crises.
We studied 72 patients with non-autoimmune diabetes: 23 with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2D), and 49 with KPD, all admitted in hyperglycemic crisis (plasma glucose ≥250 mg/dl). The T2D and KPD groups were matched by sex, age, and Body Mass Index. KPD was sub-classified into new-onset ketotic phase (n = 34) or non-ketotic phase (n = 15). We measured TNF-α, MCP-1, MIP1-α, IL-8, MIP1-β, and VEGF in the serum of all participants.
TNF-α and IL-8 were higher in participants with KPD compared to those with T2D (p = 0.02 TNF-α; p = 0.03 IL-8). TNF-α and IL-8 were also higher in the ketotic phase KPD group compared to the T2D group (p = 0.03 TNF-α; p < 0.001 IL-8) while MIP1-α was lower in people with ketotic phase KPD compared to their T2D counterparts (p = 0.03). MIP1-α was lower in the ketotic phase KPD group compared to the non-ketotic phase KPD group (p = 0.04). MCP-1 was lower in non-ketotic phase KPD compared to T2D (p = 0.04), and IL-8 was higher in non-ketotic phase KPD compared to T2D (p = 0.02).
Participants with KPD had elevated pro-inflammatory cytokines compared to their T2D counterparts. Ketotic phase KPD is associated with a different pro-inflammatory profile compared to non-ketotic phase KPD, and the inflammatory profile appears to be comparable between non-ketotic phase KPD and T2D patients.
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We are grateful to all the participants of the study.
ELY received a fellowship grant from L’ INSTITUT SERVIER and from Service of Action and Cooperation of the French embassy in Cameroon.
Ethics approval and consent to participate
This study was performed in accordance with the guidelines of the Helsinki Declaration and was approved by the National Ethics Committee of Cameroon. All participants provided written informed consent.
Consent for publication
The authors declare that they have no competing interests.
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Lontchi-Yimagou, E., Boudou, P., Nguewa, J.L. et al. Acute phase ketosis-prone atypical diabetes is associated with a pro-inflammatory profile: a case-control study in a sub-Saharan African population. J Diabetes Metab Disord 17, 37–43 (2018). https://doi.org/10.1007/s40200-018-0336-8