Despite the advances in the treatment of multiple myeloma (MM), complete remission is usually challenging. The interactions between tumor and host cells, in which exosomes (EXs) play critical roles, have been shown to be among the major deteriorative tumor-promoting factors herein. Therefore, any endeavor to beneficially target these EX-mediated interactions could be of high importance.
a) To investigate the effects of myeloma EXs on natural killer (NK) cell functions. b) To check whether treatment of myeloma cells with eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) or docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), two polyunsaturated omega-3 fatty acids with known anti-cancer effects, can modify myeloma EXs in terms of their effects on natural killer functions.
L363 cells were treated with either EPA or DHA or left untreated and the released EXs (designated as E-EX, D-EX and C-EX, respectively) were used to treat NK cells for functional studies.
Myeloma EXs (C-EXs) significantly reduced NK cytotoxicity against K562 cells (P ≤ 0.05), while the cytotoxicity suppression was significantly lower (P ≤ 0.05) in the (E-EX)- and (D-EX)-treated NK cells compared to the (C-EX)-treated cells. The expression of the activating NK receptor NKG2D and NK degranulation, after treatment with the EXs, were both altered following the same pattern. However, C-EXs could increase IFN-γ production in NK cells (P < 0.01), which was not significantly affected by EPA/DHA treatment. This indicates a dual effect of myeloma EXs on NK cells functions.
Our observations showed that myeloma EXs have both suppressive and stimulatory effects on different NK functions. Treatment of myeloma cells with EPA/DHA can reduce the suppressive effects of myeloma EXs while maintaining their stimulatory effects. These findings, together with the previous findings on the anti-cancer effects of EPA/DHA, provide stronger evidence for the repositioning of the currently existing EPA/DHA supplements to be used in the treatment of MM as an adjuvant treatment.
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This article has been extracted from the thesis written by Mr. Milad Moloudizargari in School of Medicine Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences (Registration No: 260). Ethics committee approval ID: IR.SBMU.MSP.REC.1397.578.
E. Mortaz was supported by National Institute for Medical Research Development (NIMAD) grant number 977582.
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Moloudizargari, M., Redegeld, F., Asghari, M.H. et al. Long-chain polyunsaturated omega-3 fatty acids reduce multiple myeloma exosome-mediated suppression of NK cell cytotoxicity. DARU J Pharm Sci (2020). https://doi.org/10.1007/s40199-020-00372-7
- Extracellular vesicle
- Natural killer cell