Targeting kidneys by superparamagnetic allopurinol loaded chitosan coated nanoparticles for the treatment of hyperuricemic nephrolithiasis
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The major short coming of conventional therapy system is that they can’t deliver the therapeutics specifically to a site within the body without producing nonspecific toxicity. Present research aimed at developing kidney targeted allopurinol (AP) loaded chitosan coated magnetic nanoparticles (A-MNPs) for the management of hyperuricemic nephropathy manifested in the form of nephrolithiasis.
The work includes preparation of magnetic nanoparticles by chemical co-precipitation method and evaluation of the prepared batches for particle size analysis, Transmission electron microscopy, entrapment efficiency, in-vitro release study etc. Further, FTIR spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, Differential Scanning Calorimetry, Vibrational sample magnetometer (VSM) and in-vivo animal studies were also performed.
VSM analysis demonstrates that the prepared nanoparticles exhibit superparamagnetic magnetic behaviour which was retained even after coating by chitosan. In-vivo studies of A-MNPs showed 19.07-fold increase in kidney uptake of AP as compared to serum post 2 h of administration in mice whereas no drug was detected in kidney and serum post 2 h administration of pure drug (free-form) indicating successful targeting to kidney as well as sustained release of AP from the formulated A-MNPs. The significant (p < 0.01) effectiveness of A-MNPs in management of hyperuricemic nephrolithiasis was observed through estimating pH and uric acid levels in urine and serum samples of mice. These findings were also confirmed by histological examination of isolated kidney samples.
Present investigation signifies that a simple external magnetic field is enough for targeting allopurinol to kidneys by formulating A-MNPs which further offers an effective approach for management of hyperuricemic nephrolithiasis.
KeywordsMagnetic nanoparticles Allopurinol Chitosan Kidney targeting Nephropathy
Allopurinol loaded chitosan coated magnetic nanoparticles
Chitosan coated magnetic nanoparticles (without drug)
Differential Scanning Calorimetry
Fourier Transform Infrared
High Performance Liquid Chromatography
Magnetic nanoparticles (without drug and polymer coating)
Molecular weight cut off
Physical mixture of AP and chitosan polymer
Serum uric acid
Transmission Electron Microscopy
Urine uric acid
Vibrating sample magnetometer
Authors express their deepest gratitude to Late Dr. Shailendra Kumar Singh, Professor, Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, G.J.U S&T, Hisar for his valuable contribution to research work. Authors acknowledge the UGC, New Delhi for providing Rajiv Gandhi National Fellowship and Coordinator, DST-FIST, Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, G.J.U S&T, Hisar for providing zetasizer and HPLC analysis.
Compliance with ethical standards
Conflict of interest
Authors declare no conflict of interest.
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