Advertisement

Acta Metallurgica Sinica (English Letters)

, Volume 30, Issue 4, pp 306–318 | Cite as

Performance of Corrosion-Resistant Alloys in Concentrated Acids

  • Ajit MishraEmail author
Article

Abstract

Nickel alloys containing optimum amounts of chromium (Cr), molybdenum (Mo) and tungsten (W) are widely used in the chemical processing industries due to their tolerance to both oxidizing and reducing conditions. Unlike stainless steel (SS), Ni–Cr–Mo (W) alloys exhibit remarkably high uniform corrosion resistance in major concentrated acids, like hydrochloric acid (HCl) and sulfuric acid (H2SO4). A higher uniform corrosion resistance of Ni–Cr–Mo (W) alloys, compared to other alloys, in concentrated acids can be attributed to the formation of protective oxide film of Mo and W in reducing acids, and Cr oxide film in oxidizing solutions. The localized corrosion resistance of Ni–Cr–Mo (W) alloys, containing high amount Cr as well as Mo (or Mo + W), is also significantly higher than that of other commercially available alloys. The present study investigates the role of alloying elements, in nickel alloys, to uniform corrosion resistance in concentrated acids (HCl, HCl + oxidizing impurities and H2SO4) and localized corrosion performance in chloride-rich environments using ASTM G-48 test methodology. The corrosion tests were conducted on various alloys, and the results were analyzed using weight loss technique and electrochemical techniques, in conjunction with surface characterization tools.

Keywords

Nickel–chromium–molybdenum–tungsten Corrosion-resistant alloys Reducing acid Oxidants Localized corrosion Surface characterization 

Notes

Acknowledgements

The author acknowledges the efforts of Corrosion technician Ryan Markley and Jeff Dillman from Haynes International (US) in conducting the corrosion tests and Surface Science Western (SSW) at Western University, Canada, for the XPS study. The author also acknowledges Dr. Paul Crook and Dr. Paul Manning from Haynes International for technical discussion.

References

  1. [1]
    MTI Publication MS-1, Materials Selector for Hazardous Chemicals—Sulfuric Acid, Materials Technology Institute of the Chemical Process Industries Inc., 1997, ed. by C.P. DillonGoogle Scholar
  2. [2]
    MTI Publication MS-3, Materials Selector for Hazardous Chemicals—Hydrochloric Acid, Hydrogen Chloride and Chlorine, Materials Technology Institute of the Chemical Process Industries Inc., 1999, ed. by C.P. Dillon and W.I. PollockGoogle Scholar
  3. [3]
    W.Z. Friend, Corrosion of Nickel and Nickel-Based Alloys (Wiley, New York, 1980), p. 292Google Scholar
  4. [4]
    P. Crook, ASM Handbook, vol. 13B (ASM International, Materials Park, 2005), p. 228Google Scholar
  5. [5]
    A.C. Lloyd, J.J. Noel, S. McIntyre, D.W. Shoesmith, Electrochim. Acta 49, 3015 (2004)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. [6]
    P. Jakupi, F. Wang, J.J. Noel, D.W. Shoesmith, Corros. Sci. 53, 1670 (2011)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. [7]
    A.K. Mishra, D.W. Shoesmith, Corrosion 70, 721 (2014)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. [8]
    J.R. Hayes, J.J. Gray, A.W. Szmodis, C.A. Orme, Corrosion 62, 491 (2006)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. [9]
    N.S. Meck, P. Crook, D.L. Klarstrom, NACE Corrosion Conference 2004, paper no. 04430 (NACE International, Houston TX, 2004)Google Scholar
  10. [10]
    A.K. Mishra, D.W. Shoesmith, P.E. Manning, Corrosion (2016). doi: 10.5006/2193 Google Scholar
  11. [11]
    M. Moriya, M.B. Ives, Corrosion 40, 62 (1984)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. [12]
    M. Moriya, M.B. Ives, Corrosion 40, 105 (1984)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. [13]
    R. Qvarfort, Corros. Sci. 40, 215 (1998)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. [14]
    K.J. Evans, A. Yilmaz, S.D. Day, L.L. Wong, J.C. Estill, R.B. Rebak, J. Met. 57, 56 (2005)Google Scholar
  15. [15]
    X. Shan, J.H. Payer, J. Electrochem. Soc. 156, C313 (2009)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. [16]
    N.S. Zadorozne, C.M. Giordano, M.A. Rodriguez, R.M. Carranza, R.B. Rebak, Electrochim. Acta 76, 94 (2012)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. [17]
    M.A. Rodriguez, R.M. Carranza, R.B. Rebak, Corrosion 66, 1 (2010)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. [18]
    M.R. Ortiz, M.A. Rodriguez, R.M. Carranza, R.B. Rebak, Corros. Sci. 68, 72 (2013)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. [19]
    C.M. Giordano, M.R. Ortiz, M.A. Rodriguez, R.M. Carranza, R.B. Rebak, Corros. Engi. Sci. Technol. 46, 129 (2011)Google Scholar
  20. [20]
    A.K. Mishra, G.S. Frankel, Corrosion 64, 836 (2008)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. [21]
    P. Jakupi, J.J. Noel, D.W. Shoesmith, Corros. Sci. 54, 260 (2012)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. [22]
    N. Ebrahimi, P. Jakupi, J.J. Noel, D.W. Shoesmith, Corrosion 71, 1441 (2015)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. [23]
    ASTM Annual Book of Standards, Volume 03.02 Wear and Erosion, Metal Corrosion (West Conshohocken, PA) (2011)Google Scholar
  24. [24]
    A.K. Mishra, X. Zhang, D.W. Shoesmith, Corrosion 72, 357 (2016)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. [25]
    N. Sridhar, Mater. Perform. 27, 40 (1988)Google Scholar
  26. [26]
    P. Crook, NACE Corrosion Conference 1996, paper no. 412 (NACE International, Houston TX, 1996)Google Scholar
  27. [27]
    P. Crook, M.L. Caruso, D.A. Kingseed, Mater. Perform. 36, 49 (1997)Google Scholar
  28. [28]
    N. Sridhar, NACE Corrosion Conference 1987, paper no. 19 (NACE International, Houston TX, 1987)Google Scholar
  29. [29]
    E.L. Hibner, L.E. Shoemaker, NACE Corrosion Conference 2006, paper no. 6225 (NACE International, Houston TX, 2006)Google Scholar
  30. [30]
    G.S. Frankel, J. Electrochem. Soc. 145, 21 (1998)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. [31]
    Z. Szklarska-Smialowska, Pitting and Crevice Corrosion of Metals (Houston, TX, NACE International, 2005)Google Scholar

Copyright information

© The Chinese Society for Metals and Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Research and TechnologyHaynes InternationalKokomoUSA

Personalised recommendations