Process stability and weld formation for cold metal transfer gas metal arc welding (hereafter referred to as C-GMAW) of 6061 aluminum alloy with ER4043 filler wire were investigated under different welding current waveforms via collecting the metal transfer images and current waveforms simultaneously. Low boost current (80 A) causes the occurrence of spatter due to the high viscosity of molten metal associated with low heat input. Increasing boost current improves the stability of the C-GMAW process and may change the metal transfer from cold metal transfer (CMT) mode to a hybrid one consisting of CMT and projected transfer. The projected transfer occurs regularly (once and three times a CMT cycle at 200-A and 240-A boost current, respectively), and it has a minimal effect on the stability of the C-GMAW process. Too high boost current duration (10 ms) leads to irregular projected transfer and abnormal short-circuit in wait current phase, and too high wait current (100 A and above) causes abnormal reigniting in the short-circuit phase, deteriorating the stability of the C-GMAW process. The wait current affects the mean CMT frequency noticeably, but both boost current level and duration have a minimal impact. The boost current, boost current duration, and wait current can affect actual wire feed speed, among which the boost current effect is the greatest. The increase in boost current or boost current also leads to a rise in the weld width, penetration, and contact angle of the weld metal.
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Wang, Y., Chen, M., Li, C. et al. Influence of current waveform on C-GMAW of 6061 aluminum alloy with addition of ER4043 wire. Weld World 66, 1093–1109 (2022). https://doi.org/10.1007/s40194-022-01262-z