Critical design parameters of the electrode for liquid metal embrittlement cracking in resistance spot welding


The present work studied the influence of the geometric design of the electrode on Zn-assisted liquid metal embrittlement (LME) cracking during resistance spot welding (RSW). LME cracking of the galvannealed transformation-induced plasticity (TRIP) steel welds, induced by two types of electrodes, a radius type with different radius of curvature (R), and a dome type with variable tip diameter (d), was studied both experimentally and by simulation. The current density decreased and the contact area at the electrode/sheet (E/S) interface increased with the increasing R, resulting in low temperatures and thermal stress, which subsequently led to decreased LME tendency. On the contrary, the current density decreased but the initial contact area at the E/S interface remained unchanged with increasing d, causing only a minor reduction in the temperature and hence less influence on LME cracking. These results suggested that R is the most critical design parameter of the electrode that controls LME cracking. Moreover, the radius type electrode displayed lower LME sensitivity as compared with the dome type electrode. This is attributed to the fact that the radius type electrode provides the benefits of increase in both R and d.

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This work was supported by the Korea Basic Science Institute (KBSI) National Research Facilities & Equipment Center (NFEC) grant funded by the Ministry of Education, Korea government (No. 2019R1A6C1010045).

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Correspondence to Yeong-Do Park.

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Murugan, S.P., Mahmud, K., Ji, C. et al. Critical design parameters of the electrode for liquid metal embrittlement cracking in resistance spot welding. Weld World 63, 1613–1632 (2019).

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  • Liquid metal embrittlement
  • Resistance spot welding
  • Welding electrode
  • Dome type
  • Radius type
  • Current density