Welding in the World

, Volume 63, Issue 2, pp 481–490 | Cite as

An analysis of fluid flows and solidification mechanisms during GTA welding by the means of in situ observations

  • Alexis ChioccaEmail author
  • Cyril Bordreuil
  • Fabien Soulié
  • Frédéric Deschaux-Beaume
Research Paper


Welding processes imply rapid solidification, in presence of high thermal gradient and strong fluid flows in the weld pool. This work presents, in the case of welding, an analysis of the coupling between solidification mechanisms and fluid flows at the macroscale and the microscale. An experimental setup was designed in order to observe in situ a fully penetrated weld pool generated on a Cu30Ni plate with a GTAW torch. At the macroscale, observations are carried out by three cameras: two cameras recording in visible light the top and the back side of the whole weld pool, and one infrared camera catching the thermal field on solid part at the back side. At the microscale, a high-speed camera, mounted with a microscope lens, is used to observe dendritic growth and fluid flows at the back side trailing edge of the weld pool. The observations provide a lot of data allowing analyses and discussions on the correlations between solidification mechanisms and fluid flows, with respect to welding parameters. Then, the experimental results are compared to theoretical results obtained from analytical modelling, in order to discuss the possible limitations of models and try to better understand the coupling between physical phenomena.


GTAW Welding Solidification Fluid flow In situ observation High-speed camera 


  1. 1.
    Hunziker O, Dye D, Reed RC (2000) On the formation of a centreline grain boundary during fusion welding. Acta Mater 48(17):4191–4201CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Kou S (2003) Welding metallurgy, Second edn. Wiley, HobokenGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Kou S (2012) Fluid flow and solidification in welding: three decades of fundamentals research at the university of Wisconsin. Weld J 91:287s–302sGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Gandin C-A, Guillemot G, Appolaire B, Niane NT (2003) Boundary layer correlation for dendrite tip growth with fluid flow. Mater Sci Eng A 342(1–2):44–50CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Dantzig JA, Rappaz M (2009) Solidification, First edn. EPFL Press, LausanneCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Kurz W, Fisher K (1992) Fundamentals of solidification, Third revi. Trans Tech Publications Ltd, ZurichGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Boden S, Eckert S, Gerbeth G (2010) Visualization of freckle formation induced by forced melt convection in solidifying GaIn alloys. Mater Lett 64(12):1340–1343CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Bobadilla M, Lacaze J, Lesoult G (1988) Influence des conditions de solidification sur le déroulement de la solidification des aciers inoxydables austénitiques. J Cryst Growth 89:531–544CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Bouissou P, Pelce P (1989) Effect of a forced flow on dendritic growth. Phys Rev A 40(11):6673–6680CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Zhao CX, van Steijn V, Richardson IM, Kleijn CR, Kenjeres S, Saldi Z (2009) Unsteady interfacial phenomena during inward weld pool flow with an active surface oxide. Sci Technol Weld Join 14(2):132–140CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Chiocca A, Soulié F, Deschaux-Beaume F, Bordreuil C (2016) In situ observations and measurements during solidification of CuNi weld pools. Sci Technol Weld Join 1718(May):7Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Kurz W, Giovanola B, Trivedi R (1986) Theory of microstructural development during rapid solidification. Acta Metall 34(5):823–830CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Nguyen NT (2004) Thermal analysis of welds. WITpress, New ForestCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© International Institute of Welding 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Alexis Chiocca
    • 1
    Email author
  • Cyril Bordreuil
    • 1
  • Fabien Soulié
    • 1
  • Frédéric Deschaux-Beaume
    • 1
  1. 1.LMGCUniv. Montpellier, CNRSMontpellierFrance

Personalised recommendations