Welding in the World

, Volume 62, Issue 3, pp 663–674 | Cite as

Residual stress evaluation of components produced via direct metal laser sintering

  • Brandon Kemerling
  • John C. Lippold
  • Chris M. Fancher
  • Jeffrey Bunn
Research Paper


Direct metal laser sintering is an additive manufacturing process which is capable of fabricating three-dimensional components using a laser energy source and metal powder particles. Despite the numerous benefits offered by this technology, the process maturity is low with respect to traditional subtractive manufacturing methods. Relationships between key processing parameters and final part properties are generally lacking and require further development. In this study, residual stresses were evaluated as a function of key process variables. The variables evaluated included laser scan strategy and build plate preheat temperature. Residual stresses were measured experimentally via neutron diffraction and computationally via finite element analysis. Good agreement was shown between the experimental and computational results. Results showed variations in the residual stress profile as a function of laser scan strategy. Compressive stresses were dominant along the build height (z) direction, and tensile stresses were dominant in the x and y directions. Build plate preheating was shown to be an effective method for alleviating residual stress due to the reduction in thermal gradient.


Additive manufacturing Direct metal laser sintering Residual stress Neutron diffraction SYSWELD 



This project was conducted under the auspices of the Manufacturing and Materials Joining Innovation Center (Ma2JIC), an NSF sponsored Industry/University Cooperative Research Center (I/UCRC). The authors would like to thank Los Alamos National Laboratory for the support of this project through Ma2JIC. A portion of this research used resources at the High Flux Isotope Reactor, a DOE Office of Science User Facility operated by the Oak Ridge National Laboratory. The authors are thankful for the opportunity to use these resources. Electron microscopy was performed at the Center for Electron Microscopy and Analysis (CEMAS) at The Ohio State University.


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Copyright information

© International Institute of Welding 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Welding Engineering Program, Department of Materials Science and EngineeringThe Ohio State UniversityColumbusUSA
  2. 2.Neutron Scattering DivisionOak Ridge National LaboratoryOak RidgeUSA

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