Welding in the World

, Volume 62, Issue 2, pp 393–401 | Cite as

Numerical simulation of WAAM process by a GMAW weld pool model

  • Y. Ogino
  • S. Asai
  • Y. Hirata
Research Paper


Additive manufacturing (AM) is a high-productivity process which can make a near-net-shape structure. In this study, the focus is the wire-arc AM (WAAM) process. In the WAAM process, wire is the depositing material. The wire melts by an arc plasma and deposits layer by layer. To establish an advanced WAAM process, it is important to make a precise structure of the intended shape. In this study, a gas metal arc welding (GMAW) weld pool model is applied to WAAM process, and influence of the deposit condition on the shape of the deposition is numerically investigated. Firstly, influence of the interpass temperature is investigated. When cooling time is set appropriately, the deposition shape becomes higher and thinner. In addition, concerning influence of the welding direction, when the welding direction is reversed for each layer, the variance of the deposition height becomes small. These numerical results show that it is important to manage the temperature and torch motion for controlling the deposition shape. These numerical results have similar tendency with experimental results and show the GMAW weld pool model is a helpful tool to predict and control the WAAM process.


Additive manufacturing WAAM process Numerical simulation Weld pool model Bead formation 



This research was supported by the Structural Materials for Innovation of the Cross ministerial Strategic Innovation Promotion Program (SIP) of Japan Science and Technology (JST).


  1. 1.
    Frazier WE (2014) Metal additive manufacturing: a review. J Mater Eng Perform 23(6):1917–1928CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Ding D, Pan Z, Culuri D, Li H (2015) Wire-feed additive manufacturing of metal components: technologies, developments and future interests. Int J Adv Manuf Technol 81(1-4):465–481. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Williams SW, Martina F, Addison AC, Ding J, Pardal G, Colegrove P (2016) Wire + arc additive manufacturing. Mater Sci Technol 32(7):641–647. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Martina F, Mehnen J, Williams SW, Colegrove P, Wang F (2012) Investigation of the benefits of plasma deposition for the additive layer manufacturing of Ti-6Al-4V. J Mater Process Technol 212(6):1377–1386. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Katou M, Oh J, Miyamoto Y, Matsuura K, Kudoh M (2007) Freeform fabrication of titanium metal and intermetallic alloys by three-dimensional micro welding. Mater Des 28(7):2093–2098. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Suryakumar S, Karunakaran KP, Bernard A, Chandrasekhar U, Raghavender N (2011) Weld bead modeling and process optimization in hybrid layered manufacturing. Comput Aided Des 43(4):331–344. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Wang F, Williams S, Colegrove P, Antonysamy AA (2013) Microstructure and mechanical properties of wire and arc additive manufactured Ti-6Al-4V. Metall Mater Trans A 44A:968–977CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Xiong J, Zhang G (2014) Adaptive control of deposited height in GMAW-based layer additive manufacturing. J Mater Process Technol 214(4):962–968. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Xiong J, Zhang G, Zhang W (2015) Forming appearance analysis in multi-layer single-pass GMAW-based additive manufacturing. Int J Adv Manuf Technol 80(9-12):1767–1776. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Zhao H, Zhang G, Yin Z, Wu L (2011) A 3D dynamic analysis of thermal behavior during single-pass multi-layer weld-based rapid prototyping. J Mater Process Technol 211(3):488–495. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    J. Ding, P. Colegrove, J. Mehnen, S. Ganguly, P.M. Sequeira Almeida, F. Wangb and S. Williams, Thermo-mechanical analysis of wire and arc additive layer manufacturing process on large multi-layer parts, Computation Material Science, 50 (2011), 3315–3322Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Zhao H, Zhang G, Yin Z, Wu L (2012) Three-dimensional finite element analysis of thermal stress in single-pass multi-layer weld-based rapid prototyping. J Mater Process Technol 212(1):276–285. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Zhou X, Zhang H, Wang G, Bai X (2016) Three-dimentional numerical simulation of arc and metal transport in arc welding based additive manufacturing. Int J Heat Mass Transf 103:521–537. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Ogino Y, Takabe Y, Hirata Y, Asai S (2017) Numerical model of weld pool phenomena with various joint geometries and welding position. Q J Jpn Weld Soc 35(1):13–20 (in Japanese)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Amsden AA and Harlow FH (1970) The SMAC method: a numerical technique for calculating incompressible fluid flows, Los Alamos science laboratory report, LA-4370Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Hirt CW, Nichols BD (1981) Volume of fluid (VOF) method for the dynamics of free boundaries. J Comput Phys 39(1):201–225. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Rao ZH, Hu J, Liao SM, Tsai HL (2010) Modeling of the transport phenomena in GMAW using argon–helium mixtures. Part I—the arc. Int J Heat Mass Transf 53(25-26):5707–5721. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Ushio M, Wu CS (1997) Mathematical modeling of three-dimensional heat and fluid flow in a moving gas metal arc weld pool. Metall Mater Trans B 28B:509–516CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© International Institute of Welding 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Graduate School of EngineeringOsaka UniversityOsakaJapan

Personalised recommendations