Advertisement

Welding in the World

, Volume 62, Issue 2, pp 311–316 | Cite as

Welding fume main compounds and structure

  • Nicolas Floros
Research Paper
  • 98 Downloads

Abstract

Physical and chemical properties of materials cannot be predicted only taking into account their elemental composition. Their structure is critical information to make any assessment or to understand their properties. Health risks from welding fumes are usually based on elemental composition, not the compounds they are composed of. This sometimes leads to confusion or false assessments. A review of the main compounds of arc welding fumes, or the closest ones, in terms of both elemental composition and structure, is proposed.

Keywords

Arc welding fumes Compounds Crystalline structure 

Notes

Acknowledgements

The author would like to thank the Commission VIII members for their comments and insights.

References

  1. 1.
    EN ISO 15011-2:2009. Health and safety in welding and allied processes. Laboratory method for sampling fume and gases. Determination of the emission rates of carbon monoxide (CO), carbon dioxide (CO2), nitrogen monoxide (NO) and nitrogen dioxide (NO2) during arc welding, cutting and gougingGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    EN ISO 15011-3:2009. Health and safety in welding and allied processes. Laboratory method for sampling fume and gases. Determination of ozone emission rate during arc weldingGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    EN ISO 15011-5:2011. Health and safety in welding and allied processes. Laboratory method for sampling fume and gases. Identification of thermal-degradation products generated when welding or cutting through products composed wholly or partly of organic materials using pyrolysis-gas chromatography-mass spectrometryGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Zimmer AT, Biswas P (2001) Characterization of the aerosols resulting from arc welding processes. J Aerosol Sci Aug 32(8):993–1008.  https://doi.org/10.1016/S0021-8502(01)00035-0 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Moroni B, Viti C (2009) Grain size, chemistry, and structure of fine and ultrafine particles in stainless steel welding fumes. J Aerosol Sci 40(11):938–949.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jaerosci.2009.08.004 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Dasch J, D’Arcy J (2008) Physical and chemical characterization of airborne particles from welding operations in automotive plants. J Occup Environ Hyg 5(7):444–454.  https://doi.org/10.1080/15459620802122720 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Oprya M, Kiro S, Worobiec A, Horemans B, Darchuk L, Novakovic V, Ennan A, VanGrieken R (2012) Size distribution and chemical properties of welding fumes of inhalable particles. J Aerosol Sci 45:50–57.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jaerosci.2011.10.004 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Jenkins NT, Pierce WM-G, Eagar TW (2005) Particle size distribution of gas metal and flux cored arc welding fumes. Welding J 84:156s–163sGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    EN ISO 15011-1:2009. Health and safety in welding and allied processes. Laboratory method for sampling fume and gases. Determination of fume emission rate during arc welding and collection of fume for analysisGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    INRS (2012) ED 6132 Les fumées de soudage et des techniques connexes. http://www.inrs.fr/dms/inrs/CataloguePapier/ED/TI-ED-6132/ed6132.pdf
  11. 11.
    Manitoba Labour Workplace Safety and Health (2000) Welding guidelineGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Human Ressources and Social Development Canada A guide to health hazards and hazard control measures with respect to welding and allied processes. http://www12.esdc.gc.ca/sgpe-pmps/servlet/sgpp-pmps-pub?lang=eng&curjsp=p.5bd.2t.1.3ls@-eng.jsp&curactn=dwnld&pid=3234&did=1&_ga=1.263763660.1313083678.1489589353
  13. 13.
    Heile RF, Hill DC (1975) Particulate fume generation in arc welding processes. Welding Journal 54(7):201s–210sGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Kobayashi M, Maki S, Hashimoto Y, Suga T (1978) Some considerations about formation mechanism of welding fumes. Welding in the World 16(11/12):238–249Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Gray C.N., Hewitt P.J., Dare P.R.M. (1982) New approach would help control welding fumes at source (MIG and MMA) part two: MIG fumes. Welding and Fabrication October, 393–397Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Jenkins NT, Eagar TW (2005) Chemical analysis of welding fume particles. Welding Journal 84(6):87s–93sGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Kobayashi M. and Tsutsumi S. (1986) Investigation on crystalline materials in welding fumes of covered electrodes, , Proceedings of the International Conference on Health Hazards and Biological Effects of Welding Fumes and Gases, eds. R. M. Stern, A. Berlin, A. Fletcher, K. Hemminki, J. Jarvisalo and J. Peto, pp. 77–80,Amsterdam, Excerpta MedicaGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Kimura S, Kobayashi M, Godai T, Minato S (1979) Investigations on chromium in stainless steel welding fumes. Welding Journal 58(7):195s–204sGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Voitkevich V (1995) Formation, Properties and Biological Effects. Abington Publishing, Cambridge, EnglandGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Sowards JW, Lippold JC, Dickinson DW, Ramirez AJ (2008) Characterization of welding fume from SMAW electrodes—part I. Size and mass distributions, fumegeneration rates, and chemistry are compared for three SMAW electrodes. Weld J 87:106sGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Sowards JW, Ramirez AJ, Dickinson DW, Lippold JC (2010) Characterization of welding fume from SMAW electrodes—part II. Weld J 89(4):82s–90sGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Carpenter KR, Monaghan BJ, Norrish J (2009) Analysis of fume formation rate and fume particle composition for gas metal arc welding (GMAW) of plain carbon steel using different shielding gas compositions. ISIJ Int 49(3):416–420.  https://doi.org/10.2355/isijinternational.49.416 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Minni E et al (1984) A study of the chemical structure of particles in the welding fumes of mild and stainless steel. Journal of Aerosol Science 15(1):57–68.  https://doi.org/10.1016/0021-8502(84)90056-9 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Koponen M, Gustafsson T, Kalliomaki PL, Pyy L (1981) Chromium and nickel aerosols in stainless steel manufacturing, grinding and welding. Am Ind Hyg Assoc J 42(8):596–601CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Guillemet-Fritsch S, Navrotsky A, Tailhades P, Coradin H, Miaojun WM (2005) Thermochemistry of iron manganese oxide spinels. J Solid State Chem 178:106–113CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Gonser MJ, Lippold JC, Dickinson DW, Sowards JW, Ramirez AJ (2010) Characterization of welding fume generated by high-Mn consumables. Welding Journal 89(2):25s–33sGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Keane M, Stone S, Chen B (2010) Welding fumes from stainless steel gas metal arc processes contain multiple manganese chemical species. J Environ Monit 12(5):1133–1140.  https://doi.org/10.1039/B922840C CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Maynard AD, Ito Y, Arslan I, Zimmer AT, Browning N, Nicholls A (2004) Examining elemental surface enrichment in ultrafine aerosol particles using analytical scanning transmission electron microscopy. Aerosol Sci Technol 38(4):365–381CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© International Institute of Welding 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Air Liquide Paris Saclay Research CenterJouy-en-Josas cedexFrance

Personalised recommendations