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AFRL Additive Manufacturing Modeling Series: Challenge 1, Characterization of Residual Strain Distribution in Additively-Manufactured Metal Parts Using Energy-Dispersive Diffraction


A machine component fabricated by additive manufacturing (AM) of metal powders often possesses steep residual stress gradients with significant magnitudes due to large temperature gradients that transpire within a localized area during fabrication. These processing-induced residual stresses can cause distortion of the part, and if they are of significant magnitude, they could induce cracking of the component, degrade printability, and/or diminish subsequent mechanical performance. The ability to predict these residual stresses imparted by AM is an important step in permeating AM technology for advanced manufacturing. Calibration and validation of AM process models used for prediction are, therefore, a critical step in understanding the origin and mitigating the challenges associated with residual stresses inherent to the AM process. In the present work, the residual strain distributions in components with simple geometries fabricated by a laser powder bed fusion (LBPF) process were characterized non-destructively using energy-dispersive X-ray diffraction in support of the US Air Force Research Laboratory Additive Manufacturing Modeling Challenge Series Groeber et al. (JOM 70:441-448, 2018). The measurement setup and approach are described in detail so that the data can be used as a benchmark to calibrate and validate models for the prediction of macro-scale residual stresses due to the LPBF process.

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    Precision of stages is better than 1\({\upmu} \hbox{m}\). Surface roughness of the specimen hinder our ability to position VOI at higher precision.

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    Only the 1-mm-thick tube was measured using MC3 because thicker-walled (3-mm-thick and 5-mm-thick) tubes had too much attenuation for an adequate EDXRD measurement.

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    Here, the equation is a rearrangement of Bragg’s law and \(\frac{hc}{E^{hkl}}\) corresponds to the wavelength of the diffracting photons.

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    This rough equivalence is based on the assumption of isotropic elasticity, an assumed room temperature elastic modulus for IN625 of 200 GPa, and assuming a uniaxial stress field. More accurate calculation of corresponding stresses could be obtained by considering all components of strain tensor and appropriate anisotropic elastic behavior.

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    The data package is available at


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ACC, JSP, PAS, EJS, MAG, and WDM acknowledge support from the US Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL). The authors also acknowledge logistical support from Marie Cox (AFRL, program manager for AFRL AM Modeling Challenge Series), support with machining of the articles from Lance Griffith, and the AFRL AM Modeling Challenge Series team at large. John Okasinski of the APS is acknowledged for support of the beamline experiment. This research used resources of the Advanced Photon Source, a US Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Science User Facility, operated for the DOE Office of Science by Argonne National Laboratory under Contract No. DE-AC02-06CH11357.

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Correspondence to William D. Musinski.

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Chuang, A.C., Park, JS., Shade, P.A. et al. AFRL Additive Manufacturing Modeling Series: Challenge 1, Characterization of Residual Strain Distribution in Additively-Manufactured Metal Parts Using Energy-Dispersive Diffraction. Integr Mater Manuf Innov (2021).

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  • Residual strain
  • Energy-dispersive diffraction
  • Laser powder bed fusion
  • LPBF
  • Selective laser melting
  • SLM
  • Additive manufacturing