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AFRL Additive Manufacturing Modeling Series: Challenge 2, Microscale Process-to-Structure Data Description

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The Air Force Research Laboratory Additive Manufacturing Modeling Series was executed to create calibration and validation data sets relevant to models of laser powder bed fusion-processed metallic materials. This article describes the data generated for the 2nd of 4 challenge questions which was specifically focused on microscale process-to-structure modeling needs. This work describes the experimental methods, and the resulting characterization data collected from a series of single-track and multi-track deposits built with an EOS M280 from the nickel-based alloy IN625. In general, track dimensions followed common scaling behaviors as a function of processing parameters in quasi-steady-state regions, but significant systematic track geometry variations were quantified in transient regions with more dynamic energy input processes.

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Data Availability

All of the data described above for calibration and validation data sets in both raw and reduced form have been published at the Materials Data Facility [23, 24], specifically at Ref. [25]. The supplementary information to this article includes a “Data Manifest” document which describes the directory structure, file naming convention, and additional details of the files.


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We wish to acknowledge Kevin Cwiok for his assistance in preparation and execution of specimen fabrication; Michael Uchic and Sean Donegan for fruitful discussions regarding the details of the sectioning as well as optical and electron imaging experiments; Paul Wittmann for key-point identification in the single- and multi-track cross section image set, E. Begum Gulsoy, Ben Blaiszik, James Fourman and Matt Jacobsen for assistance in data curation; Marie Cox as the program manager for the AFRL AMMC effort; and the AFRL AMMC team at large.

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Correspondence to Edwin J. Schwalbach.

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Schwalbach, E.J., Chapman, M.G. & Groeber, M.A. AFRL Additive Manufacturing Modeling Series: Challenge 2, Microscale Process-to-Structure Data Description. Integr Mater Manuf Innov 10, 319–337 (2021).

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