An integrated computational materials engineering (ICME)-based workflow was adopted for the study of microstructure and property evolution at the heat-affected zone (HAZ) of gas metal arc-welded DP980 steel. The macroscale simulation of the welding process was performed with finite element method (FEM) implemented in Simufact Welding® software and was experimentally validated. The time–temperature profile at HAZ obtained from FEM simulation was physically simulated using Gleeble 3800® thermo-mechanical simulator with a dilatometer attachment. The resulting phase transformations and microstructure were studied experimentally. The austenite-to-ferrite and austenite-to-bainite transformations during cooling at HAZ were simulated using the Johnson–Mehl–Avrami–Kolmogorov (JMAK) equation implemented in JMatPro® software and with phase-field modeling implemented in Micress® software. The phase fractions and the phase transformation kinetics simulated by phase-field method agreed well with experiments. A single scaling factor introduced in JMatPro® software minimized the deviation between calculations and experiments. Asymptotic homogenization implemented in Homat® software was used to calculate the effective macroscale thermo-elastic properties from the phase-field simulated microstructure. FEM-based virtual uniaxial tensile test with Abaqus® software was used to calculate the effective macroscale flow curves from the phase-field simulated microstructure. The flow curve from virtual test simulation showed good agreement with the flow curve obtained with tensile test in Gleeble®. An ICME-based vertical integration workflow in two stages is proposed. With this ICME workflow, effective properties at the macroscale could be obtained by taking microstructure morphology and orientation into consideration.
This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.
Buy single article
Instant access to the full article PDF.
Price includes VAT for USA
Subscribe to journal
Immediate online access to all issues from 2019. Subscription will auto renew annually.
This is the net price. Taxes to be calculated in checkout.
The data that support the results of this study are available from the corresponding author upon reasonable request.
Schmitz GJ, Engstrom A, Bernhardt R, Prahl U, Adam L, Seyfarth J, Apel M, de Saracibar CA, Korzhavyi P, Ågren J, Patzak B (2016) Software solutions for ICME. J Miner Metals Mater Soc 68:70–76
Allison J, Backman D, Christodoulou L (2016) Integrated computational materials engineering: a new paradigm for the global materials profession. J Miner Metals Mater Soc 58:25–27. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11837-006-0223-5
Helm D, Butz A, Raabe D, Gumbsch P (2011) Microstructure-based description of the deformation of metals: theory and application. J Miner Metals Mater Soc 63:26–33
John DM, Farivar H, Rothenbucher G, Kumar R, Zagade P, Khan D, Babu A, Gautham BP, Bernhardt R, Phanikumar G, Prahl U (2017) An attempt to integrate software tools at microscale and above towards an ICME approach for heat treatment of a DP steel gear with reduced distortion. Miner Metals Mater Ser Part F 4:3–13. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-57864-4_1
Deepu MJ, Farivar H, Prahl U, Phanikumar G (2017) Microstructure based simulations for prediction of flow curves and selection of process parameters for inter-critical annealing in DP steel. IOP Conf Ser Mater Sci Eng 192:012010. https://doi.org/10.1088/1757-899X/192/1/012010
Rahul MR, Phanikumar G (2015) Correlation of microstructure with HAZ welding cycles simulated in Ti-15-3 alloy using Gleeble 3800 and SYSWELD. Mater Perform Charact 4:381–398
Steinbach I (2009) Phase-field models in materials science. Modell Simul Mater Sci Eng 17:073001. https://doi.org/10.1088/0965-0393/17/7/073001
DeWitt S, Thornton K (2018) Phase field modeling of microstructural evolution. In: Shin D, Saal J (eds) Computational materials system design. Springer, Cham. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-68280-8_4
Boettinger WJ, Warren JA, Beckermann C, Karma A (2002) Phase-field simulation of solidification. Ann Rev Mater Res 32:163–194
Thornton K, Ågren J, Voorhees PW (2003) Modelling the evolution of phase boundaries in solids at the meso- and nano-scales. Acta Mater 51:5675–5710
Mecozzi MG, Sietsma J, Van Der Zwaag S, Apel M, Schaffnit P, Steinbach I (2005) Analysis of the γ → α transformation in a C-Mn steel by phase-field modeling. Metall Mater Trans A 36:2327–2340
Mecozzi MG, Sietsma J, Van Der Zwaag S (2005) Phase field modelling of the interfacial condition at the moving interphase during the γ → α transformation in C-Mn steels. Comput Mater Sci 34:290–297
Mecozzi MG, Sietsma J, Van Der Zwaag S (2006) Analysis of γ → α transformation in a Nb micro-alloyed C-Mn steel by phase field modelling. Acta Mater 54:1431–1440
Militzer M, Mecozzi MG, Sietsma J, van der Zwaag S (2006) Three-dimensional phase field modelling of the austenite-to-ferrite transformation. Acta Mater 54:3961–3972
Mecozzi MG, Militzer M, Sietsma J, Zwaag S (2008) The role of nucleation behavior in phase-field simulations of the austenite to ferrite transformation. Metall Mater Trans A 39:1237–1247
Zhu B, Militzer M (2014) Phase-field modeling for intercritical annealing of a dual-phase steel. Metall Mater Trans A 46:1073–1084
Zhu B, Chen H, Militzer M (2015) Phase-field modeling of cyclic phase transformations in low-carbon steels. Comput Mater Sci 108:333–341
Mukherjee K, Prahl U, Bleck W, Reisgen U, Schleser M, Abdurakhmanov A (2010) Characterization and modelling techniques for gas metal arc welding of DP 600 sheet steels. Materialwiss Werkstofftech 41:972–983
Arif TT, Qin RS (2014) A phase-field model for the formation of martensite and bainite. Adv Mater Res 922:31–36
Bhattacharya A, Upadhyay CS, Sangal S (2015) Phase-field model for mixed-mode of growth applied to austenite to ferrite transformation. Metall Mater Trans A 46:926–936
Düsing M, Mahnken R (2016) A thermodynamic framework for coupled multiphase Ginzburg-Landau/Cahn-Hilliard systems for simulation of lower bainitic transformation. Arch Appl Mech 86:1947–1964
Ramazani A, Li Y, Mukherjee K, Prahl U, Bleck W, Abdurakhmanov A, Schleser M, Reisgen U (2013) Microstructure evolution simulation in hot rolled DP600 steel during gas metal arc welding. Comput Mater Sci 68:107–116
Toloui M, Militzer M (2018) Phase field modeling of the simultaneous formation of bainite and ferrite in TRIP steel. Acta Mater 144:786–800
Laschet G (2002) Homogenization of the thermal properties of transpiration cooled multi-layer plates. Comput Methods Appl Mech Eng 191:4535–4554
Laschet G (2004) Homogenization of the fluid flow and heat transfer in transpiration cooled multi-layer plates. J Comput Appl Math 168:277–288
Laschet G, Apel M (2010) Thermo-elastic homogenization of 3-D steel microstructure simulated by the phase-field method. Steel Res Int 81:637–643
Laschet G, Shukla M, Henke T, Fayek P, Bambach M, Prahl U (2014) Impact of the microstructure on the U-O forming simulations of a ferrite-pearlite pipeline tube. Steel Res Int 85:1083–1098
Ramazani A, Mukherjee K, Quade H, Prahl U, Bleck W (2013) Correlation between 2D and 3D flow curve modelling of DP steels using a microstructure-based RVE approach. Mater Sci Eng, A 560:129–139
Farivar H, Rothenbucher G, Prahl U, Bernhardt R (2017) ICME-based process and alloy design for vacuum carburized steel components with high potential of reduced distortion. Miner Metals Mater Ser Part F 4:133–144
Farivar H, Deepu MJ, Hans M, Phanikumar G, Bleck W, Prahl U (2019) Influence of post-carburizing heat treatment on the core microstructural evolution and the resulting mechanical properties in case-hardened steel components. Mater Sci Eng A 744:778–789
Santofimia MJ, Zhao L, Sietsma J (2011) Overview of mechanisms involved during the quenching and partitioning process in steels. Metall Mater Trans A 42:3620–3626
ImageJ (2020). https://imagej.nih.gov/ij/index.html. Accessed 26 April 2020
Rezayat H, Ghassemi-Armaki H, Bhat SP, Sriram S, Babu SS (2019) Constitutive properties and plastic instabilities in the heat-affected zones of advanced high-strength steel spot welds. J Mater Sci 54:5825–5843
Simufact Welding (2020). https://www.simufact.com/simufactwelding-welding-simulation.html. Accessed 30 May 2020
Goldak J, Chakravarti A, Bibby M (1984) A new finite element model for welding heat sources. Metall Trans B 15:299–305
JMatPro (2020). https://www.sentesoftware.co.uk/jmatpro. Accessed 11 May 2020
Mecozzi MG, Eiken J, Santofimia MJ, Sietsma J (2016) Phase field modelling of microstructural evolution during the quenching and partitioning treatment in low-alloy steels. Comput Mater Sci 112:245–256
Micress (2020). https://micress.rwth-aachen.de/. Accessed 26 April 2020
Goulas C, Mecozzi MG, Sietsma J (2016) Bainite formation in medium-carbon low-silicon spring steels accounting for chemical segregation. Metall Mater Trans A 47:3077–3087
The authors would like to acknowledge the financial support from the Indo-German Science and Technology Centre (IGSTC), New Delhi, India, for the project ‘DP-Forge’ and Center for Excellence in Iron and Steel Technology (CoExiST), IIT Madras. The authors would also like to acknowledge JSW Steel, Karnataka, India, for providing the material for research.
Conflict of interest
The authors declare that they have no known competing financial interests or personal relationships that could have appeared to influence the work reported in this paper.
About this article
Cite this article
Deepu, M.J., Phanikumar, G. ICME Framework for Simulation of Microstructure and Property Evolution During Gas Metal Arc Welding in DP980 Steel. Integr Mater Manuf Innov 9, 228–239 (2020). https://doi.org/10.1007/s40192-020-00182-4
- Phase-field simulation
- Dual-phase steel
- Microstructure evolution
- Vertical integration