Springer Nature is making SARS-CoV-2 and COVID-19 research free. View research | View latest news | Sign up for updates

Outcomes and Conclusions from the 2018 AM-Bench Measurements, Challenge Problems, Modeling Submissions, and Conference

  • 5 Accesses


The Additive Manufacturing Benchmark (AM-Bench) test series was established to provide rigorous measurement test data for validating additive manufacturing (AM) simulations for a broad range of AM technologies and material systems. AM-Bench includes extensive in situ and ex situ measurements, simulation challenges for the AM modeling community, and a corresponding conference series. In 2018, the first round of AM-Bench measurements and the first AM-Bench conference were completed, focusing primarily upon laser powder bed fusion (LPBF) processing of metals, and both LPBF and material extrusion processing of polymers. In all, 46 blind modeling simulations were submitted by the international AM community in comparison with the in situ and ex situ measurements. Analysis of these submissions provides valuable insight into existing AM modeling capabilities. The AM-Bench data are permanently archived and freely accessible online.

This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.

Fig. 1
Fig. 2
Fig. 3
Fig. 4
Fig. 5
Fig. 6
Fig. 7
Fig. 8
Fig. 9


  1. 1.

    Certain commercial entities, equipment, or materials may be identified in this document to describe an experimental procedure or concept adequately. Such identification is not intended to imply recommendation or endorsement by the National Institute of Standards and Technology nor is it intended to imply that the entities, materials, or equipment are necessarily the best available for the purpose.


  1. 1.

    Levine LE (2016) Software architecture, database development, and model validation: toward a computational benchmark in additive manufacturing. In: National academies of sciences, engineering, and medicine 2016. Predictive theoretical and computational approaches for additive manufacturing: proceedings of a workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press, pp 86–88. https://doi.org/10.17226/23646

  2. 2.

    Boulware P (2016) Final technical report to national institute of standards and technology and national center for defense manufacturing and machining—measurement science innovation program for additive manufacturing: an evaluation of in-process sensing techniques through the use of an open architecture laser powder bed fusion platform. No. NIST# 70NANB13H192—20140097. Edison Welding Institute (EWI), Cincinnati

  3. 3.

    Boulware P (2017) In-process monitoring techniques for laser powder bed fusion. EWI Public Report Edison Welding Institute (EWI), Cincinnati

  4. 4.

    Lane BM, Mekhontsev S, Grantham S, Vlasea M, Whiting J, Yeung H, Fox J, Zarobila C, Neira J, McGlauflin M, et al. (2016). Design, developments, and results from the NIST additive manufacturing metrology testbed (AMMT). In: Proceedings of the 26th annual international solid freeform fabrication symposium, (Austin, TX), pp 1145–1160

  5. 5.

    Keller T, Lindwall G, Ghosh S, Ma L, Lane BM, Zhang F, Kattner UR, Lass EA, Heigel JC, Idell Y, Williams ME, Allen AJ, Guyer JE, Levine LE (2017) Application of finite element, phase-field, and CALPHAD-based methods to additive manufacturing of Ni superalloys. Acta Mater 139:244–253

  6. 6.

    Lass EA, Stoudt MR, Williams ME, Katz M, Levine LE, Phan TQ, Gnaeupel-Herold T, Ng DS (2017) Formation of the Ni3Nb δ-phase in stress-relieved inconel 625 produced via laser powder-bed fusion additive manufacturing. Metall Mater Trans A 48:5547–5558

  7. 7.

    Ghosh S, Ma L, Levine LE, Ricker RE, Stoudt MR, Guyer JE (2018) Single-track melt-pool measurements and microstructures in Inconel 625. JOM 70:1011–1016

  8. 8.

    Zhang F, Levine LE, Allen AJ, Stoudt MR, Lindwall G, Lass EA, Williams ME, Idell Y, Campbell CE (2018) Effect of heat treatment on the microstructural evolution of a nickel-based superalloy additive-manufactured by laser powder bed fusion. Acta Mater 152:200–214

  9. 9.

    Stoudt MR, Lass EA, Ng DS, Williams ME, Zhang F, Campbell CE, Lindwall G, Levine LE (2018) The influence of annealing temperature and time on the formation of δ-phase in additively-manufactured Inconel 625. Metall Mater Trans A 49:3028–3037

  10. 10.

    Lindwall G, Campbell CE, Lass EA, Zhang F, Stoudt MR, Allen AJ, Levine LE (2019) Simulation of TTT curves for additively manufactured Inconel 625. Metall Mater Trans A 50:457–467. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11661-018-4959-7

  11. 11.

    Lass EA, Stoudt MR, Williams ME (2019) Additively manufactured nitrogen atomized 17-4 PH stainless steel with mechanical properties comparable to wrought. Metall Mater Trans A 50:1619–1624. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11661-019-05124-0

  12. 12.

    Heigel JC, Lane BM, Levine LE (2019) In situ measurements of melt-pool length and cooling rate during 3D builds of the metal AM-bench artifacts. Integr Mater Manuf Innov. https://doi.org/10.1007/s40192-020-00170-8

  13. 13.

    Phan TQ, Strantza M, Hill MR, Gnaeupel-Herold TH, Heigel JC, D’Elia CR, DeWald AT, Clausen B, Pagan DC, Ko P, Brown DW, Levine LE (2019) Elastic residual strain and stress measurements and corresponding part deflections of 3D additive manufacturing builds of IN625 AM-bench artifacts using neutron diffraction, synchrotron X-ray diffraction, and contour method. Integr Mater Manuf Innov 8:318–334

  14. 14.

    Stoudt MR, Williams ME, Levine LE, Creuziger AA, Young SA, Heigel JC, Lane BM, Phan TQ (2019) Location-specific microstructure characterization within IN625 additive manufacturing benchmark test artifacts. Integr Mater Manuf Innov (submitted)

  15. 15.

    Zhang F, Levine LE, Allen A, Young S, Williams ME, Stoudt MR, Moon K-W, Heigel JC, Ilavsky J (2019) Phase fraction and evolution of additively manufactured (AM) 15-5 stainless steel and Inconel 625 AM-bench artifacts. Integr Mater Manuf Innov 8:362–377

  16. 16.

    Lane BM, Heigel JC, Ricker R, Zhirnov I, Khromschenko V, Weaver J, Phan TQ, Stoudt MR, Mekhontsev S, Levine LE (2019) Measurements of melt pool geometry and cooling rates of individual laser traces on IN625 bare plates. Integr Mater Manuf Innov. https://doi.org/10.1007/s40192-020-00169-1

  17. 17.

    Ricker R, Heigel JC, Lane BM, Zhirnov I, Levine LE (2019) Topographic measurement of individual laser tracks in alloy 625 bare plates. Integr Mater Manuf Innov. 8:521–536. https://doi.org/10.1007/s40192-019-00157-0

  18. 18.

    Richard Fonda and David Rowenhorst, private communication

  19. 19.

    Bain ED, Garboczi EJ, Seppala JE, Parker TC, Migler KB (2019) AMB2018-04: benchmark physical property measurements for powder bed fusion additive manufacturing of polyamide 12. Integr Mater Manuf Innov 8:335–361

  20. 20.

    Schoinochoritis B, Chantzis D, Salonitis K (2015) Simulation of metallic powder bed additive manufacturing processes with the finite element method: a critical review. Proc Inst Mech Eng, Part B: J Eng Manuf 231:96–117

  21. 21.

    Lindgren E, Lundbäck A, Fisk M, Pederson R, Andersson J (2016) Simulation of additive manufacturing using coupled constitutive and microstructure models. Addit Manuf B 12:144–158

  22. 22.

    Parry L, Ashcroft IA, Wildman RD (2016) Understanding the effect of laser scan strategy on residual stress in selective laser melting through thermo-mechanical simulation. Addit Manuf A 12:1–15

  23. 23.

    Cao J, Gharghouri MA, Nash P (2016) Finite-element analysis and experimental validation of thermal residual stress and distortion in electron beam additive manufactured Ti–6Al–4V build plates. J Mater Process Technol 237:409–419

  24. 24.

    Strantza M, Ganeriwala RK, Clausen B, Phan TQ, Levine LE, Pagan D, King WE, Hodge NE, Brown DW (2018) Coupled experimental and computational study of residual stresses of additively manufactured Ti–6Al–4V components. Mater Lett 231:221–224

  25. 25.

    Ganeriwala RK, Strantza M, King WE, Clausen B, Phan TQ, Levine LE, Brown DW, Hodge NE (2019) Evaluation of a thermo-mechanical model for prediction of residual stress during laser powder bed fusion of Ti-6Al-4V. Addit Manuf 27:489–502

  26. 26.

    Yang Y, Allen M, London T, Oancea V (2019) Residual strain predictions for a powder bed fusion Inconel 625 single cantilever part. Integr Mater Manuf Innov 8:294–304

  27. 27.

    Gan Z, Lian Y, Lin SE, Jones KK, Liu WK, Wagner GJ (2019) Benchmark study of thermal behavior, surface topography and dendritic microstructure in laser melting of Inconel 625. Integr Mater Manuf Innov 8:178–193

  28. 28.

    Debroy T, Wei HL, Zuback JS, Mukherjee T, Elmer JW, Milewski JO, Beese AM, Wilson-Heid A, De A, Zhang W (2017) Additive manufacturing of metallic components—process, structure and properties. Prog Mater Sci 92:112–224. https://doi.org/10.1016/J.PMATSCI.2017.10.001

  29. 29.

    Dima A, Bhaskarla S, Becker C, Brady M, Campbell C, Dessauw P, Hanisch R, Kattner U, Kroenlein K, Newrock M, Peskin A, Plante R, Li SY, Rigodiat PF, Amaral GS, Trautt Z, Schmitt X, Warren J, Youssef S (2016) Informatics infrastructure for the materials genome initiative. JOM 68:2053–2064. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11837-016-2000-4

  30. 30.

    NIST (2018) Configurable data curation system. https://github.com/usnistgov/MDCS

  31. 31.


Download references

Author information

Correspondence to Lyle Levine.

Ethics declarations

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Levine, L., Lane, B., Heigel, J. et al. Outcomes and Conclusions from the 2018 AM-Bench Measurements, Challenge Problems, Modeling Submissions, and Conference. Integr Mater Manuf Innov (2020). https://doi.org/10.1007/s40192-019-00164-1

Download citation


  • Additive manufacturing
  • Benchmarks
  • Model validation
  • AM-Bench