Phase Fraction and Evolution of Additively Manufactured (AM) 15-5 Stainless Steel and Inconel 625 AM-Bench Artifacts

  • Fan ZhangEmail author
  • Lyle E. Levine
  • Andrew J. Allen
  • Sandra W. Young
  • Maureen E. Williams
  • Mark R. Stoudt
  • Kil-Won Moon
  • Jarred C. Heigel
  • Jan Ilavsky
Thematic Section: Additive Manufacturing Benchmarks 2018
Part of the following topical collections:
  1. Additive Manufacturing Benchmarks 2018


A proper understanding of the structure and microstructure of additively manufactured (AM) alloys is essential not only to the prediction and assessment of their material properties, but also to the validation and verification of computer models needed to advance AM technologies. To accelerate AM development, as part of the AM-Bench effort, we conducted rigorous synchrotron-based X-ray scattering and diffraction experiments on two types of AM alloys (AM 15-5 stainless steel and AM Inconel 625). Taking advantage of the high penetration of synchrotron hard X-rays, we determined the phases present in these alloys under different build conditions and their statistically meaningful phase fractions using high-resolution X-ray diffraction. Using in situ multi-scale X-ray scattering and diffraction, we quantitatively analyzed the phase evolution and development of major precipitates in these alloys as a function of time during stress relief heat treatments. These results serve to validate AM microstructure models and provide input to higher-level AM processing and property models to predict the material properties and performances.


Additive manufacturing Metals Stainless steel Nickel-based super alloy X-ray diffraction X-ray scattering Precipitation Microstructure Atomic structure 



Use of the Advanced Photon Source, an Office of Science User Facility operated for the US Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Science by Argonne National Laboratory, was supported by the US DOE under Contract No. DE-AC02-06CH11357. This research was partially supported by the Exascale Computing Project (17-SC-20-SC), a collaborative effort of the US Department of Energy Office of Science and the National Nuclear Security Administration.


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Copyright information

© The Minerals, Metals & Materials Society 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Fan Zhang
    • 1
    Email author
  • Lyle E. Levine
    • 2
  • Andrew J. Allen
    • 1
  • Sandra W. Young
    • 2
  • Maureen E. Williams
    • 2
  • Mark R. Stoudt
    • 2
  • Kil-Won Moon
    • 2
  • Jarred C. Heigel
    • 3
  • Jan Ilavsky
    • 4
  1. 1.Materials Measurement Science DivisionNational Institute of Standards and TechnologyGaithersburgUSA
  2. 2.Materials Science and Engineering DivisionNational Institute of Standards and TechnologyGaithersburgUSA
  3. 3.Intelligent Systems DivisionNational Institute of Standards and TechnologyGaithersburgUSA
  4. 4.X-ray Science DivisionArgonne National LaboratoryArgonneUSA

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