The Flexibility Paradox: Achieving Ambidexterity in High-Variety, Low-Volume Manufacturing

Original Research

Abstract

The ability to simultaneously increase operational efficiency and undertake organisational innovation has become a cornerstone for the long-term prosperity of organisations. For manufacturing small-to-medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) that produce a high variety of customised products at low volumes (HVLV), achieving this so-called organisational ambidexterity poses significant challenges. HVLV manufacturers are designed to facilitate maximum flexibility in the manufacturing system; however, it is this same flexibility that can hinder the ability of a HVLV manufacturer to achieve organisational ambidexterity—bringing to light an apparent trade-off between two seemingly contradictory objectives. Hence, in this paper, we investigate the relationship between flexibility and ambidexterity in the context of HVLV manufacturing as well as the use of different management practices to manage this relationship. We construct a conceptual model by adopting a paradox-based view of tensions using insights from an extensive literature review. Building off the contributions of paradox and organisation theory, this conceptual model demonstrates the multi-dimensional and dynamic nature of tensions between flexibility and ambidexterity as they manifest as much from salient factors (regarding social phenomena and individual cognition) as they are from latent factors (through the complex interactions of organisational elements). By moving beyond the dominant paradigm of efficiency-driven research in HVLV manufacturing, we provide managers with unique insights into the role flexibility plays in achieving ambidexterity to help facilitate better informed decisions taken by them. Further theoretical and practical implications are discussed as well as potential areas for further research.

Keywords

Ambidexterity Flexibility High-variety Low-volume manufacturing Paradox thinking 

References

  1. Adler, P. S., Goldoftas, B., & Levine, D. I. (1999). Flexibility versus efficiency? A case study of model changeovers in the Toyota production system. Organization Science, 10(1), 43–68.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Adrodegari, F., Bacchetti, A., Pinto, R., Pirola, F., & Zanardini, M. (2015). Engineer-to-order (ETO) production planning and control: An empirical framework for machinery-building companies. Production Planning & Control, 26(11), 910–932.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Agarwal, R., Brown, P. J., Green, R., Randhawa, K., & Tan, H. (2014). Management practices of Australian manufacturing firms: Why are some firms more innovative? International Journal of Production Research, 52(21), 496–517.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Agarwal, R., & Selen, W. (2009). Dynamic capability building in service value networks for achieving service innovation. Decision Sciences, 40(3), 431–475.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Agarwal, R., & Selen, W. (2011). Multi-dimensional nature of service innovation: Operationalisation of the elevated service offerings construct in collaborative service organisations. International Journal of Operations & Production Management, 31(11), 1164–1192.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Amaro, G., Hendry, L., & Kingsman, B. (1999). Competitive advantage, customisation and a new taxonomy for non make-to-stock companies. International Journal of Operations & Production Management, 19(4), 349–371.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Andriopoulos, C., & Lewis, M. W. (2009). Exploitation–exploration tensions and organizational ambidexterity: Managing paradoxes of innovation. Organization Science, 20(4), 696–717.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Asia Pacific Defence Reporter (APDR). (2017). Brisbane company Ferra engineering wins export success. Viewed November 22, 2017. https://www.asiapacificdefencereporter.com/articles/1211/BRISBANE-COMPANY-FERRA-ENGINEERING-WINS-EXPORT-SUCCESS.
  9. Australian Advanced Manufacturing Council (AAMC). 2017. Making it in Australia: Our advanced manufacturing future. Viewed November 22 2017. http://aamc.org.au/wp-content/uploads/2017/05/Making-it-in-Australia-Our-Advanced-Manufacturing-Future.pdf.
  10. Australian Manufacturing Growth Centre (AMGC). (2016). Sector competitiveness plan 2017. Viewed November 10 2017. https://12262-console.memberconnex.com/Attachment?Action=Download&Attachment_id=15.
  11. Benson, J. K. (1977). Organizations: A dialectical view. Administrative Science Quarterly, 22(1), 1–21.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Birkinshaw, J., & Gupta, K. (2013). Clarifying the distinctive contribution of ambidexterity to the field of organization studies. The Academy of Management Perspectives, 27(4), 287–298.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Blindenbach-Driessen, F., & Van Den Ende, J. (2006). Innovation in project-based firms: The context dependency of success factors. Research Policy, 35(4), 545–561.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Bloom, N., Brynjolfsson, E., Foster, L., Jarmin, R.S., Patnaik, M., Saporta-Eksten, I. & Van Reenen, J. (2017). What drives differences in management? National Bureau of Economic Research.Google Scholar
  15. Bloom, N. & Van Reenen, J. (2006). Measuring and explaining management practices across firms and countries. National Bureau of Economic Research.Google Scholar
  16. Böhle, F., Heidling, E., & Schoper, Y. (2016). A new orientation to deal with uncertainty in projects. International Journal of Project Management, 34(7), 1384–1392.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Brozovic, D. (2016). Strategic flexibility: A review of the literature. International Journal of Management Reviews, 00, 1–29.Google Scholar
  18. Carlsson, B. (1989). Flexibility and the theory of the firm. International Journal of Industrial Organization, 7(2), 179–203.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Caron, F., & Fiore, A. (1995). ‘Engineer to order’ companies: How to integrate manufacturing and innovative processes. International Journal of Project Management, 13(5), 313–319.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Chesbrough, H. W. (2007). Why companies should have open business models. MIT Sloan Management Review, 48(2), 22.Google Scholar
  21. Chesbrough, H. (2010). Business model innovation: Opportunities and barriers. Long Range Planning, 43(2), 354–363.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Chesbrough, H. W., & Appleyard, M. M. (2007). Open innovation and strategy. California Management Review, 50(1), 57–76.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Chiaroni, D., Chiesa, V., & Frattini, F. (2010). Unravelling the process from closed to open innovation: Evidence from mature, asset-intensive industries. R&D Management, 40(3), 222–245.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Clegg, S. R., da Cunha, J. V., & Cunha, M. P. (2002). Management paradoxes: A relational view. Human Relations, 55(5), 483–503.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Clegg, C., & Fitter, M. (1981). Organizational and behavioural consequences of uncertainty: A case study. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 2(3), 155–175.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Corti, D., Pozzetti, A., & Zorzini, M. (2006). A capacity-driven approach to establish reliable due dates in a MTO environment. International Journal of Production Economics, 104(2), 536–554.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Cransberg, V., Land, M., Hicks, C., & Stevenson, M. (2016). Handling the complexities of real-life job shops when implementing workload control: A decision framework and case study. International Journal of Production Research, 54(4), 1094–1109.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. De Haan, J., Kwakkel, J., Walker, W., Spirco, J., & Thissen, W. (2011). Framing flexibility: Theorising and data mining to develop a useful definition of flexibility and related concepts. Futures, 43(9), 923–933.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. D’Souza, D. E., & Williams, F. P. (2000). Toward a taxonomy of manufacturing flexibility dimensions. Journal of operations management, 18(5), 577–593.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Duncan, R. B. (1976). The ambidextrous organization: Designing dual structures for innovation. The management of organization, 1, 167–188.Google Scholar
  31. Eisenhardt, K. M., Furr, N. R., & Bingham, C. B. (2010). Microfoundations of performance: Balancing efficiency and flexibility in dynamic environments. Organization Science, 21(6), 1263–1273.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Ferra. (2017). Ferra quality certification. Viewed November 22 2017. http://www.ferra.com.au/quality/.
  33. Flynn, B. B., & Flynn, E. J. (2004). An exploratory study of the nature of cumulative capabilities. Journal of Operations Management, 22(5), 439–457.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Foss, N. J., & Saebi, T. (2015). Business model innovation: The organizational dimension. Oxford: Oxford University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Fox, S., Jokinen, T., Lindfors, N., & Ylén, J.-P. (2009). Formulation of robust strategies for project manufacturing business. International Journal of Managing Projects in Business, 2(2), 217–237.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Gann, D. M., & Salter, A. J. (2000). Innovation in project-based, service-enhanced firms: The construction of complex products and systems. Research Policy, 29(7), 955–972.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Gibson, C. B., & Birkinshaw, J. (2004). The antecedents, consequences, and mediating role of organizational ambidexterity. Academy of Management Journal, 47(2), 209–226.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Golden, W., & Powell, P. (2000). Towards a definition of flexibility: In search of the Holy Grail? Omega, 28(4), 373–384.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Green, R., Toner, P., & Agarwal, R. (2012). Understanding productivity: Australia’s choice. Sydney: McKell Institute Sydney.Google Scholar
  40. Gupta, A. K., Smith, K. G., & Shalley, C. E. (2006). The interplay between exploration and exploitation. Academy of Management Journal, 49(4), 693–706.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Hargrave, T. J., & Van de Ven, A. H. (2017). Integrating dialectical and paradox perspectives on managing contradictions in organizations. Organization Studies, 38(3–4), 319–339.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. He, Z.-L., & Wong, P.-K. (2004). Exploration vs. exploitation: An empirical test of the ambidexterity hypothesis. Organization Science, 15(4), 481–494.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Helfat, C. E., & Winter, S. G. (2011). Untangling dynamic and operational capabilities: Strategy for the (N) ever-changing world. Strategic Management Journal, 32(11), 1243–1250.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Hendry, L. C. (1998). Applying world class manufacturing to make-to-order companies: Problems and solutions. International Journal of Operations & Production Management, 18(11), 1086–1100.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Hendry, L. C. (2010). Product customisation: An empirical study of competitive advantage and repeat business. International Journal of Production Research, 48(13), 3845–3865.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Hendry, L., Huang, Y., & Stevenson, M. (2013). Workload control Successful implementation taking a contingency-based view of production planning and control. International Journal of Operations & Production Management, 33(1–2), 69–103.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Hicks, C., Earl, C. F., & McGovern, T. (2000). An analysis of company structure and business processes in the capital goods industry in the UK. IEEE Transactions on Engineering Management, 47(4), 414–423.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Hill, L., Brandeau, G., Truelove, E., & Lineback, K. (2014). The inescapable paradox of managing creativity. Harvard Business Review, 12, 2–5.Google Scholar
  49. Jain, A., Jain, P., Chan, F. T., & Singh, S. (2013). A review on manufacturing flexibility. International Journal of Production Research, 51(19), 5946–5970.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Jansen, J. J., Simsek, Z., & Cao, Q. (2012). Ambidexterity and performance in multiunit contexts: Cross-level moderating effects of structural and resource attributes. Strategic Management Journal, 33(11), 1286–1303.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Jarzabkowski, P., & Fenton, E. (2006). Strategizing and organizing in pluralistic contexts. Long Range Planning, 39(6), 631–648.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Jarzabkowski, P., Lê, J. K., & Van de Ven, A. H. (2013). Responding to competing strategic demands: How organizing, belonging, and performing paradoxes coevolve. Strategic Organization, 11(3), 245–280.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Johnson, J. L., Lee, R. P.-W., Saini, A., & Grohmann, B. (2003). Market-focused strategic flexibility: Conceptual advances and an integrative model. Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science, 31(1), 74–89.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Junni, P., Sarala, R. M., Taras, V., & Tarba, S. Y. (2013). Organizational ambidexterity and performance: A meta-analysis. The Academy of Management Perspectives, 27(4), 299–312.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Karpen, I. O., Bove, L. L., & Lukas, B. A. (2012). Linking service-dominant logic and strategic business practice: A conceptual model of a service-dominant orientation. Journal of Service Research, 15(1), 21–38.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Katic, M., Agarwal, R., & Al-Kilidar, H. (2017). ‘Exploring the effect of customisation on management practices in High-Variety, Low-Volume Manufacturing’, paper presented to the 24th EurOMA Conference. Scotland: Edinburgh.Google Scholar
  57. Keegan, A., & Turner, J. R. (2002). The management of innovation in project-based firms. Long Range Planning, 35(4), 367–388.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. KfW. (2016). SME panel 2016—annual analysis of the structure and development of SMEs in Germany. Viewed November 24 2017. https://www.kfw.de/PDF/Download-Center/Konzernthemen/Research/PDF-Dokumente-KfW-Mittelstandspanel/PDF-Dateien-Mittelstandspanel-(EN)/KfW-SME-Panel-2016_EN.pdf.
  59. Kindström, D., & Kowalkowski, C. (2014). Service innovation in product-centric firms: A multidimensional business model perspective. Journal of Business & Industrial Marketing, 29(2), 96–111.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Kingsman, B. G., & de Souza, A. A. (1997). A knowledge-based decision support system for cost estimation and pricing decisions in versatile manufacturing companies. International Journal of Production Economics, 53(2), 119–139.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Kingsman, B., Hendry, L., Mercer, A., & deSouza, A. (1996). Responding to customer enquiries in make-to-order companies: Problems and solutions. International Journal of Production Economics, 46, 219–231.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Kingsman, B., Worden, L., Hendry, L., Mercer, A., & Wilson, E. (1993). Integrating marketing and production planning in make-to-order companies. International Journal of Production Economics, 30, 53–66.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Kortmann, S., Gelhard, C., Zimmermann, C., & Piller, F. T. (2014). Linking strategic flexibility and operational efficiency: The mediating role of ambidextrous operational capabilities. Journal of Operations Management, 32(7), 475–490.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Koste, L. L., Malhotra, M. K., & Sharma, S. (2004). Measuring dimensions of manufacturing flexibility. Journal of Operations Management, 22(2), 171–196.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. KPMG. (2015). Future state: Australian manufacturing and smart specialisation. Viewed November 20 2017. https://assets.kpmg.com/content/dam/kpmg/pdf/2015/07/australian-manufacturing-smart-specialisation-june-2015.pdf.
  66. Land, M. J., & Gaalman, G. J. (2009). Production planning and control in SMEs: Time for change. Production Planning and Control, 20(7), 548–558.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Langfred, C. W., & Rockmann, K. W. (2016). The push and pull of autonomy: The tension between individual autonomy and organizational control in knowledge work. Group and Organization Management, 41(5), 629–657.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Lechler, T. G., Edington, B. H., & Gao, T. (2012). Challenging classic project management: Turning project uncertainties into business opportunities. Project Management Journal, 43(6), 59–69.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Leih, S., Linden, G., & Teece, D. (2015). Business model innovation and organisational design: A dynamic capabilities perspective, Business model innovation: The organisational dimension (pp. 24–42). New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  70. Levinthal, D. A., & March, J. G. (1993). The myopia of learning. Strategic Management Journal, 14(S2), 95–112.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Lewis, M. W. (2000). Exploring paradox: Toward a more comprehensive guide. Academy of Management Review, 25(4), 760–776.Google Scholar
  72. Lewis, M. W., & Smith, W. K. (2014). Paradox as a metatheoretical perspective: Sharpening the focus and widening the scope. The Journal of Applied Behavioral Science, 50(2), 127–149.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Loïc, P., Lecocq, X., & Angot, J. (2010). Customer-integrated business models: A theoretical framework. Management, 13(4), 226–265.Google Scholar
  74. Lubatkin, M. H., Simsek, Z., Ling, Y., & Veiga, J. F. (2006). Ambidexterity and performance in small-to medium-sized firms: The pivotal role of top management team behavioral integration. Journal of Management, 32(5), 646–672.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. March, J. G. (1991). Exploration and exploitation in organizational learning. Organization Science, 2(1), 71–87.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. March, J. G. (2003). Understanding organisational adaptation. Society and Economy, 25(1), 1–10.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Martini, A., Laugen, B. T., Gastaldi, L., & Corso, M. (2013). Continuous innovation: Towards a paradoxical, ambidextrous combination of exploration and exploitation. International Journal of Technology Management, 61(1), 1–22.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. McShane, S. L., Olekalns, M., & Travaglione, A. (2013). Organisational behaviour: Emerging knowledge, global insights. North Ryde: McGraw Hill Australia.Google Scholar
  79. Mello, M. H., Gosling, J., Naim, M. M., Strandhagen, J. O., & Brett, P. O. (2017). Improving coordination in an engineer-to-order supply chain using a soft systems approach. Production Planning and Control, 28(2), 89–107.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Merrow, E. W. (2011). Industrial megaprojects: Concepts, strategies, and practices for success. Hoboken: Wiley.Google Scholar
  81. Miron-Spektor, E., Gino, F., & Argote, L. (2011). Paradoxical frames and creative sparks: Enhancing individual creativity through conflict and integration. Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, 116(2), 229–240.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. Miron-Spektor, E., Ingram, A., Keller, J., Smith, W. & Lewis, M. (2017). Microfoundations of organizational paradox: The problem is how we think about the problem. Academy of Management Journal.  https://doi.org/10.5465/amj.2016.0594.Google Scholar
  83. Mom, T. J., Van Den Bosch, F. A., & Volberda, H. W. (2009). Understanding variation in managers’ ambidexterity: Investigating direct and interaction effects of formal structural and personal coordination mechanisms. Organization Science, 20(4), 812–828.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. Muda, S., & Hendry, L. (2002). Developing a new world class model for small and medium sized make-to-order companies. International Journal of Production Economics, 78(3), 295–310.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Muda, M. S., & Hendry, L. (2003). The SHEN model for MTO SMEs—a performance improvement tool. International Journal of Operations & Production Management, 23(5–6), 470–486.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. O’Reilly, C. A., & Tushman, M. L. (2008). Ambidexterity as a dynamic capability: Resolving the innovator’s dilemma. Research in Organizational Behavior, 28, 185–206.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. O’Reilly, C. A., & Tushman, M. L. (2013). Organizational ambidexterity: Past, present, and future. The Academy of Management Perspectives, 27(4), 324–338.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. Patel, P. C., Terjesen, S., & Li, D. (2012). Enhancing effects of manufacturing flexibility through operational absorptive capacity and operational ambidexterity. Journal of Operations Management, 30(3), 201–220.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. Pérez Pérez, M., Serrano Bedia, A. M., & López Fernández, M. C. (2016). A review of manufacturing flexibility: Systematising the concept. International Journal of Production Research, 54(10), 3133–3148.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. Perminova, O., Gustafsson, M., & Wikström, K. (2008). Defining uncertainty in projects–a new perspective. International Journal of Project Management, 26(1), 73–79.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. Petroni, A., Zammori, F., & Marolla, G. (2017). World class manufacturing in make-to-order batch-production SMEs: An exploratory analysis in northern Italy. International Journal of Business Excellence, 11(2), 241–275.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. Portioli-Staudacher, A., & Tantardini, M. (2012). Lean implementation in non-repetitive companies: A survey and analysis. International Journal of Services and Operations Management, 11(4), 385–406.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. Raisch, S., & Birkinshaw, J. (2008). Organizational ambidexterity: Antecedents, outcomes, and moderators. Journal of Management, 34(3), 375–409.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. Roberts, N., & Stockport, G. J. (2009). Defining strategic flexibility. Global Journal of Flexible Systems Management, 10(1), 27.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. Rudberg, M., & Wikner, J. (2004). Mass customization in terms of the customer order decoupling point. Production Planning & Control, 15(4), 445–458.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. Runco, M. A. (2014). Creativity: Theories and themes: Research, development, and practice. Amsterdam: Elsevier.Google Scholar
  97. Runco, M. A., & Acar, S. (2012). Divergent thinking as an indicator of creative potential. Creativity Research Journal, 24(1), 66–75.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. Saunders, F. C., Gale, A. W., & Sherry, A. H. (2015). Conceptualising uncertainty in safety-critical projects: A practitioner perspective. International Journal of Project Management, 33(2), 467–478.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. Schad, J., Lewis, M. W., Raisch, S., & Smith, W. K. (2016). Paradox research in management science: Looking back to move forward. Academy of Management Annals, 10(1), 5–64.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. Schreyögg, G., & Sydow, J. (2010). CROSSROADS—organizing for fluidity? Dilemmas of new organizational forms. Organization Science, 21(6), 1251–1262.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. Secchi, R., & Camuffo, A. (2016). Rolling out lean production systems: A knowledge-based perspective. International Journal of Operations & Production Management, 36(1), 61–85.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. Silva, C., Stevenson, M., & Thurer, M. (2015). A case study of the successful implementation of workload control: A practitioner-led approach. Journal of Manufacturing Technology Management, 26(2), 280–296.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. Smith, W. K., & Lewis, M. W. (2011). Toward a theory of paradox: A dynamic equilibrium model of organizing. Academy of Management Review, 36(2), 381–403.Google Scholar
  104. Smith, W. K., Lewis, M. W., & Tushman, M. L. (2016). ”Both/and” leadership. Harvard Business Review, 94(5), 1–8.Google Scholar
  105. Smith, W. K., & Tushman, M. L. (2005). Managing strategic contradictions: A top management model for managing innovation streams. Organization Science, 16(5), 522–536.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  106. Stacey, R., & Mowles, C. (2016). Strategic Management and Organisational Dynamics: The challenge of complexity to ways of thinking about organisations. London: Pearson Education.Google Scholar
  107. Stevenson, M. (2009). Practical implementation of production planning and control concepts in SMEs and MTOs: An introduction to the special issue. Production Planning & Control, 20(7), 541–547.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  108. Stevenson, M., Hendry, L. C., & Kingsman, B. (2005). A review of production planning and control: The applicability of key concepts to the make-to-order industry. International Journal of Production Research, 43(5), 869–898.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  109. Stevenson, M., & Vanharanta, M. (2015). The effects of managerial decision making behaviour and order book size on workload control system implementation in Make-To-Order companies. Production Planning & Control, 26(2), 97–115.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  110. Sushil. (2015). Strategic flexibility: The evolving paradigm of strategic management. Global Journal of Flexible Systems Management, 16(2), 113–114.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  111. Tamayo-Torres, J., Roehrich, J. K., & Lewis, M. A. (2017). Ambidexterity, performance and environmental dynamism. International Journal of Operations & Production Management, 37(3), 282–299.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  112. Teece, D. J. (2010). Business models, business strategy and innovation. Long Range Planning, 43(2), 172–194.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  113. Teece, D.J., Pisano, G. & Shuen, A. (1997). Dynamic capabilities and strategic management. Strategic Management Journal, 509–33.Google Scholar
  114. Thomassen, M. K., & Alfnes, E. (2017). Mass customization challenges of engineer-to-order manufacturing, Managing Complexity (pp. 27–39). Berlin: Springer.Google Scholar
  115. Turner, N., Maylor, H., & Swart, J. (2015). Ambidexterity in projects: An intellectual capital perspective. International Journal of Project Management, 33(1), 177–188.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  116. Turner, R., & Müller, R. (2017). The Governance of Organizational Project Management. In N. Drouin, R. Müller, & S. Sankaran (Eds.), Cambridge handbook of organizational project management (pp. 75–91). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  117. Turner, N., Turner, N., Kutsch, E., Kutsch, E., Leybourne, S. A., & Leybourne, S. A. (2016). Rethinking project reliability using the ambidexterity and mindfulness perspectives. International Journal of Managing Projects in Business, 9(4), 845–864.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  118. Tushman, M. L., & O’Reilly, C. A., III. (1996). Ambidextrous organizations: Managing evolutionary and revolutionary change. California Management Review, 38(4), 8–29.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  119. Vaagen, H., Kaut, M., & Wallace, S. W. (2017). The impact of design uncertainty in engineer-to-order project planning. European Journal of Operational Research, 261(3), 1098–1109.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  120. Van de Vrande, V., De Jong, J. P., Vanhaverbeke, W., & De Rochemont, M. (2009). Open innovation in SMEs: Trends, motives and management challenges. Technovation, 29(6), 423–437.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  121. Venohr, B., Fear, J. & Witt, A. (2015). Best of German Mittelstand-The World Market Leaders, Deutsche Standards. Viewed November 19 2017. https://static1.squarespace.com/static/548ac75ce4b0a10ad41f38e7/t/57344e180442625ddb6f5b7f/1463045664669/160419_FIN+BOGM+.pdf.
  122. Wan, X., & Sanders, N. R. (2017). The negative impact of product variety: Forecast bias, inventory levels, and the role of vertical integration. International Journal of Production Economics, 186, 123–131.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  123. Wang, Z., Zhang, M., Sun, H., & Zhu, G. (2016). Effects of standardization and innovation on mass customization: An empirical investigation. Technovation, 48, 79–86.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  124. Weber, W.W. (2016). Germany’s midsize manufacturers outperform its industrial giants. Harvard Business Review Digital Articles, 2–5.Google Scholar
  125. White, R. E., & Prybutok, V. (2001). The relationship between JIT practices and type of production system. Omega, 29(2), 113–124.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  126. Wikner, J., & Rudberg, M. (2005). Integrating production and engineering perspectives on the customer order decoupling point. International Journal of Operations & Production Management, 25(7), 623–641.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  127. Willner, O., Powell, D., Gerschberger, M., & Schönsleben, P. (2016). Exploring the archetypes of engineer-to-order: An empirical analysis. International Journal of Operations & Production Management, 36(3), 242–264.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  128. Winch, G. M. (2014). Three domains of project organising. International Journal of Project Management, 32(5), 721–731.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  129. Yang, L.-R. (2013). Key practices, manufacturing capability and attainment of manufacturing goals: The perspective of project/engineer-to-order manufacturing. International Journal of Project Management, 31(1), 109–125.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  130. Zhang, Q., Vonderembse, M. A., & Lim, J.-S. (2003). Manufacturing flexibility: Defining and analyzing relationships among competence, capability, and customer satisfaction. Journal of Operations Management, 21(2), 173–191.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  131. Zorzini, M., Hendry, L., Stevenson, M., & Pozzetti, A. (2008). Customer enquiry management and product customization: An empirical multi-case study analysis in the Italian capital goods sector. International Journal of Operations & Production Management, 28(12), 1186–1218.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Global Institute of Flexible Systems Management 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.School of Systems Management and Leadership, Faculty of Engineering and Information TechnologyUniversity of Technology SydneySydneyAustralia
  2. 2.Management Discipline Group, UTS BusinessUniversity of Technology SydneySydneyAustralia

Personalised recommendations