Recognizing the contribution of Indigenous Protected Areas to marine protected area management in Australia

Abstract

Indigenous Protected Areas (IPAs) are a form of protected area in Australia which are dedicated by Indigenous people over their traditional land and seas. Initially, IPAs were dedicated only over landowned exclusively by Indigenous Australian groups. However, recent years have seen a growing tendency for other tenures, including Sea Country (marine and coastal areas), to be incorporated into IPAs. This paper explores Sea Country IPAs as a grassroots participatory conservation phenomenon being led by Indigenous Australians and as a policy construct. Distinctions between how terrestrial and marine protected areas are handled within Australian policy spaces are explained, as are the innovative collaborative management approaches being developed to draw stakeholders together within the governance architecture of Sea Country IPAs. Three examples are presented to illustrate how Sea Country IPAs operate as Indigenous-led management regimes which draw on varied legal and other effective means, to conserve ecological and cultural resources. In exploring these characteristics of Sea Country IPAs, the paper encourages the marine science, management, and policy communities to engage with Sea Country IPAs and recognize their contributions to marine protected area management in Australia.

This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.

Fig. 1
Fig. 2
Fig. 3
Fig. 4
Fig. 5
Fig. 6
Fig. 7
Fig. 8

Notes

  1. 1.

    Links to many of these can be found at https://eatlas.org.au/nwa/indigenous/guide.

  2. 2.

    “The goal of the [NRS] is to develop and effectively manage a comprehensive, adequate and representative national system of protected areas, as the primary means for securing long-term protection for Australia’s terrestrial biodiversity” (NRMMC 2010:10); “The primary goal of the NRSMPA is to establish and manage a comprehensive, adequate and representative system of MPAs to contribute to the long-term ecological viability of marine and estuarine systems, to maintain ecological processes and systems, and to protect Australia’s biological diversity at all levels” (ANZECC TFMPA 1998:5).

  3. 3.

    The marine components of IPAs were first noted in the 2014 marine CAPAD (DoE&E 2014). One (Dhimurru) of the then seven relevant IPAs (see Table 1) was noted in the spatial version and two (Dhimurru, putalina) in the textual version (seemingly as an oversight, DoE&E pers. com. 2/7/18). These oversights were corrected in the latest (2016) textual marine edition of CAPAD (DoE&E 2016b), which did not include any non-NRSMPA MPAs and therefore the marine components of any IPAs. The spatial version of the 2016 edition of CAPAD included six of the nine IPAs which at that time had marine components (Dhimurru, Mandingalbay Yidinji, Eastern Kuku Yalanji, Girringun, Thuwathu/Bujimulla, and Nyangumarta Warrarn) (DoE&E 2016a). It is unclear why the remaining three (putalina, Uunguu, and Bardi Jawi) were not included in the marine versions. These three were listed in the terrestrial version of CAPAD 2016, with the spatial version of the terrestrial CAPAD showing their extensions into marine areas.

  4. 4.

    In the mid-1990s, Australia introduced a regionalized approach to conservation, to ensure all major bioregions received adequate levels of protection. During this process, it emerged that Indigenous parties were the major landowners in some bioregions, and so inclusion of Aboriginal lands would be critical to the achievement of a comprehensive, adequate, and representative system of conservation areas (Bauman and Smyth 2007; Szabo and Smyth 2003).

  5. 5.

    A visual inspection of the IPA spatial dataset released by the Australian Government (DoE&E 2018) indicates that there may be as many as 20 IPAs which extend to the coast but which do not extend into marine areas. No further analysis of this data has been undertaken (e.g., for omissions, or against the maps provided in IPA management plans to confirm accuracy).

  6. 6.

    Over the same period as these Sea Country IPAs emerged, so too have a range of terrestrial-only multi-tenure IPAs. These IPAs include Indigenous-owned land, various State/Territory or Federal protected areas, pastoral properties, other privately owned lands, crown lands, mining leases, and township areas. Commercial and recreational activities undertaken within IPAs include tourism, pastoral activities, mining, carbon abatement, and feral buffalo harvesting.

  7. 7.

    Noting that the creation of an institutional space is an inherently intercultural process which sees the innovative remoulding of western institutional designs (as often required for compliance with taxation, corporate and other laws) to accommodate Indigenous decision-making protocols (Hunt et al. 2008).

  8. 8.

    Noting these priorities and strategies often also interact with other aspirations such as social and economic well-being—for example, through employment, enterprise development, the intergenerational transmission of knowledge, being able to access Country, improvements in mental and physical health, etc. (Austin et al. 2017c; Barber 2015; Bauman and Smyth 2007; Farr et al. 2016; Hill et al. 2013; Sithole et al. 2008; SVA 2016; URBIS 2012).

  9. 9.

    Native title is a legal regime created under the Native Title Act 1993 (Cth) which recognizes certain rights or interests which arise from Indigenous pre-colonial systems of law. Native title rights, where recognized, are then held by a prescribed body corporate.

  10. 10.

    Indigenous organizations established under various land rights legislation operating in particular State/Territory jurisdictions.

  11. 11.

    Resource centers are Indigenous-owned corporations which provide services to small, remote, family-based communities living on Country, away from major service centers (usually referred to as “outstations” or “homelands”).

  12. 12.

    Indigenous Land Use Agreements (ILUAs) are voluntary but binding agreements between native title holders and other parties.

  13. 13.

    Traditional Use of Marine Areas (TUMRAs) “describe how Great Barrier Reef Traditional Owner groups work in partnership with the Australian and Queensland governments to manage traditional use activities on their sea country… [and] may describe… their role in compliance, [and] their role in monitoring the condition of plants and animals, and human activities in the Great Barrier Reef Marine Park” (GBRMPA 2019).

  14. 14.

    Over time, the government department responsible for this assessment has oscillated between departments such as the Department of the Environment and Energy, the Department of the Prime Minister and Cabinet, and the National Indigenous Australians Agency.

  15. 15.

    A detailed account of this framework is provided in GAC et al. 2013:42-46.

References

  1. ALC (Anindilyakwa Land Council). 2016. Anindilyakwa Indigenous Protected Area Plan of Management 2016. Alyangula: ALC.

    Google Scholar 

  2. Altman, J., and P. Whitehead. 2003. Caring for Country and sustainable Indigenous development: Opportunities, constraints and innovation. In CAEPR Working Paper No 20/2003. Canberra: Australian National University.

    Google Scholar 

  3. Ansell, C., and A. Gash. 2007. Collaborative governance in theory and practice. JPART 18: 543–571.

    Google Scholar 

  4. ANZECC TFMPA (Australian and New Zealand Environment and Conservation Council, Task Force on Marine Protected Areas). 1998. Guidelines for Establishing the National Representative System of Marine Protected Areas. Canberra: Environment Australia.

    Google Scholar 

  5. Austin, B., T. Vigilante, S. Cowell, I. Dutton, D. Djanghara, S. Mangolomara, B. Puermora, A. Bundamurra, and C. Zerika. 2017a. The Uunguu Monitoring and Evaluation Committee: Intercultural Governance of a Land and Sea Management Programme in the Kimberley, Australia. Ecological Management and Restoration 18 (2): 124–133.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  6. Austin, B., C. Robinson, G. Lincoln, D. Mathews, D. Oades, A. Wiggins, S. Bayley, J. Edgar, T. King, K. George, J. Mansfield, J. Melbourne, T. Vigilante, and with the Balanggarra, Bardi Jawi, Dambimangari, Karajarri, Nyul Nyul, Wunambal Gaambera & Yawuru Traditional Owners. 2017b. Guidelines for Collaborative Knowledge Work in Kimberley Saltwater Country: Final Report of Project 1.5.2 the Kimberley Indigenous Saltwater Science Project (KISSP). Perth: Prepared for the Kimberley Marine Research Program, Western Australian Marine Science Institution.

    Google Scholar 

  7. Austin, B., M. Hockings, C. Robinson, C. Corrigan, J. Macdonald, G. James, D. Smyth, O. Campion, C. Brown, C. Rogers, J. Roy, W. Thompson, and S. Garnett. 2017c. Are We Looking After Country Right? Integrating measures of Indigenous land and sea management effectiveness. Report to Australian Research Council Linkage Project Partners June 2017.

  8. Austin, B., C. Robinson, J. Fitzsimons, M. Sandford, E. Ens, J. Macdonald, M. Hockings, D. Hinchley, F. McDonald, C. Corrigan, R. Kennett, H. Hunter-Xenie, and S. Garnett. 2018a. Integrated measures of indigenous land and sea management effectiveness: challenges and opportunities for improved conservation partnerships in Australia. Conservation and Society 16 (3): 372–384.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  9. Austin, B., C. Robinson, G. Lincoln, R. Dobbs, F. Tingle, S. Garnett, D. Mathews, D. Oades, A. Wiggan, S. Bayley, J. Edgar, T. King, K. George, J. Mansfield, J. Melbourne, T. Vigilante, and with the Balanggarra, Bardi Jawi, Dambimangari, Karajarri, Nyul Nyul, Wunambal Gaambera & Yawuru Traditional Owners. 2018b. Mobilising Indigenous Knowledge for the Collaborative Management of Kimberley Saltwater Country. Final Report of project 1.5.1 the Kimberley Indigenous Saltwater Science Project (KISSP). Perth: Prepared for the Kimberley Marine Research Program, Western Australian Marine Science Institution.

    Google Scholar 

  10. Austin, B., C. Robinson, M. Tofa, and S. Garnett. 2019. Investor Aspirations for Indigenous Land and Sea Management in Australia Australas. Journal of Environmental Management 26 (2): 156–172.

    Google Scholar 

  11. BAC (Bawinanga Aboriginal Corporation). 2018. Djelk Indigenous Protected Area Sea Country Plan of Management 2019-2025. Maningrida: BAC.

    Google Scholar 

  12. Ban, N., and A. Frid. 2018. Indigenous peoples’ rights and marine protected areas. Marine Policy 87: 180–185.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  13. Barber, M. 2015. Rangers in place: the wider Indigenous community benefits of Yirralka Rangers in Blue Mud Bay, northeast Arnhem Land. Darwin: Charles Darwin University.

    Google Scholar 

  14. Bauman, T., and D. Smyth. 2007. Indigenous Partnerships in Protected Area Management in Australia: Three case studies. Canberra: Australian Institute of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Studies in association with the Australian Collaboration and the Poola Foundation (Tom Kantor fund).

    Google Scholar 

  15. Bennett, N., and P. Dearden. 2014. From measuring outcomes to providing inputs: governance, management and local development for more effective marine protected areas. Marine Policy 50: 96–110.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  16. Bock, E., P. Rist, T. Vigilante, and N. Waina. 2018. Indigenous Protected Areas and islands. In Australian Island Arks: Conservation, management and opportunities, ed. D. Moro, D. Ball, and S. Bryant, 115–129. Clayton: CSIRO.

    Google Scholar 

  17. Borrini-Feyerabend, G., N. Dudley, T. Jaeger, B. Lassen, N. Pathak Broome, A. Phillips, and T. Sandwith. 2013. Governance of Protected Areas: From understanding to action. Best Practice Protected Area Guidelines Series No. 20. Gland: IUCN.

    Google Scholar 

  18. Buku-Larrnggay Mulka Centre, ed. 1999. Saltwater: Yirrkala bark paintings of sea country. Neutral Bay: Jennifer Isaacs Publishing.

    Google Scholar 

  19. Butterly, L. 2013. Changing Tack: Akiba and the way forward for Indigenous governance of Sea Country. Australian Indigenous Law Review 17 (1): 2–22.

    Google Scholar 

  20. Carr, B., J. Fitzsimons, N. Holland, T. Berkinshaw, K. Bradby, S. Cowell, P. Deegan, P. Koch, M. Looker, T. Varcoe, P. Walsh, and F. Weisenberger. 2017. CAPitalising on conservation knowledge: Using Conservation Action Planning, Healthy Country Planning and the Open Standards in Australia. Ecological Management and Restoration 18 (3): 176–189.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  21. CIR (Crocodile Islands Rangers). 2019. Crocodile Islands Maringa IPA Plan of Management: 2019-2024. Milingimbi: MOPRA.

    Google Scholar 

  22. CLCAC (Carpentaria Land Council Aboriginal Corporation). n.d. Thuwathu/Bujimulla Indigenous Protected Area Management Plan. Queensland: CLACC http://www.clcac.com.au/sites/default/files/downloads/wellesly_islands_ipa_management_plan_web_ready_0.pdf Accessed 19 June 2019.

  23. DAC (Dhimurru Aboriginal Corporation). 2015a. Dhimurru Indigenous Protected Area Management Plan 2015 to 2022. Nhulunbuy: DAC.

    Google Scholar 

  24. DAC. 2015b. Dhimurru Aboriginal Corporation Annual Report 2014–2015. Nhulunbuy: DAC.

  25. DAC. 2006. Yolnguwu Monuk Gapu Wanga Sea Country Plan: A Yolngu Vision and Plan for Sea Country Management in North-east Arnhem Land, Northern Territory. Nhulunbuy: DAC.

    Google Scholar 

  26. Davies, J., R. Hill, F. Walsh, M. Sandford, D. Smyth, and M. Holmes. 2013. Innovation in Management Plans for Community Conserved Areas: experiences from Australian indigenous protected areas. Ecology and Society 18 (2): 14.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  27. Davies, H., J. Gould, R. Hovey, B. Radford, G. Kendrick, and The Anindilyakwa Land and Sea Rangers and Anindilyakwa Traditional Owners. 2020. Mapping the Marine Environment Through a Cross-Cultural Collaboration. Frontiers in Marine Science 7: 716.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  28. Day, J. 2016. The Great Barrier Reef Marine Park: the grandfather of modern MPAs. In Big, Bold and Blue – Lessons from Australia’s Marine Protected Areas, ed. J. Fitzsimon and G. Wescott, 65–97. Clayton: CSIRO.

    Google Scholar 

  29. Day, J., N. Dudley, M. Hockings, G. Holmes, D. Laffoley, S. Stolton, and S. Wells. 2012. Guidelines for applying the IUCN Protected Area Management Categories to Marine Protected Areas. Gland: IUCN.

    Google Scholar 

  30. Day, J., D. Laffoley, and K. Zischka. 2015. Marine Protected Area Management. In Protected Area Governance and Management, ed. G. Worboys, M. Lockwood, A. Kothari, S. Feary, and I. Pulsford, 611–650. Canberra: IUCN and ANU Press.

    Google Scholar 

  31. deKoninck, V., R. Kennett, and P. Josif. 2013. National Indigenous Sea Country Workshop Report. NAILSMA Knowledge Series 014/2013. Darwin: NAILSMA.

    Google Scholar 

  32. DENR (Department of Environment and Natural Resources). 2019. Coastal and Marine Management Strategy, Northern Territory 2019-2029: Our coast and seas. Darwin: NTG. https://denr.nt.gov.au/__data/assets/pdf_file/0004/729472/coastal-marine-management-strategy-2019-2029.pdf Accessed 11 Dec 2019.

  33. Depczynski, M., K. Cook, K. Cure, H. Davies, L. Evans-Illidge, T. Forester, J. Gould, D. Oades, J. Underwood, and M. Wyatt. 2019. Marine monitoring of Australia’s Indigenous Sea Country using remote technologies: a case study in integrating traditional and scientific knowledge. JOT 14 (1): 60–75.

    Google Scholar 

  34. Djelk Rangers (2015) Djelk Healthy Country Plan 2015-2025. https://maps.northwestatlas.org/files/montara/links_to_plans/NT/NT1_Djelk_Healthy_Country_Plan.pdf?_ga=2.62118380.151521768.1580703228-807226784.1576455480. Accessed 3 Feb 2020.

  35. DoE&E (Department of Environment and Energy). 2014. CAPAD 2014. https://www.environment.gov.au/land/nrs/science/capad/2014. Accessed 9 Apr 2019.

  36. DoE&E. 2016a. Collaborative Australian Protected Areas Database (CAPAD) 2016 – Marine (spatial dataset). www.environment.gov.au/fed/catalog/search/resource/downloadData.page?uuid=%7BAF4EE98E-7F09-4172-B95E-067AB8FA10FC%7D. Accessed 21 Jan 2019.

  37. DoE&E. 2016b. ‘Marine CAPAD National Summary’ (spreadsheet). www.environment.gov.au/land/nrs/science/capad/2016. Accessed 21 Jan 2019.

  38. DoE&E. 2018. Indigenous Protected Areas – Dedicated (spatial dataset). http://www.environment.gov.au/fed/catalog/search/resource/details.page?uuid=%7BC64658F0-95AD-4209-8D1E-F94BD0A4E827%7D. Accessed 21 Jan 2019.

  39. DoE&E (Department of the Environment and Energy). 2019a. CAPAD: protected area data. http://www.environment.gov.au/land/nrs/science/capad. Accessed 24 Jan 2019.

  40. DoE&E. 2019b. Indigenous Protected Areas. http://www.environment.gov.au/land/indigenous-protected-areas. Accessed 14 Feb 2019.

  41. DoE&E. 2019c. Ownership of protected areas. http://www.environment.gov.au/land/nrs/about-nrs/ownership#levels. Accessed 24 Jan 2019.

  42. DoE&E. 2019d. Scientific framework. http://www.environment.gov.au/land/nrs/science/scientific-framework. Accessed 24 Jan 2019.

  43. DoE&E. 2020. CAPAD 2018. https://www.environment.gov.au/land/nrs/science/capad/2018. Accessed 30 Jan 2020.

  44. DPAW (Department of Parks and Wildlife). 2016. North Kimberley Marine Park: Joint Management Plan 2016 - Uunguu, Balanggarra, Miriwung Gajerrong, and Wilingging management areas, Management Plan 89. DPAW: Perth.

    Google Scholar 

  45. DPIF (Department of Primary Industry and Fisheries). 2013. Indigenous Community Marine Ranger Program. Darwin: NTG. https://dpir.nt.gov.au/__data/assets/pdf_file/0004/258799/indigenous-community-marine-ranger-program.pdf Accessed 12 Jan 2017.

  46. DPM&C (Department of the Prime Minister and Cabinet). .2019. Indigenous Protected Areas https://www.pmc.gov.au/indigenous-affairs/environment/indigenous-protected-areas-ipas. Accessed 24 Jan 2019.

  47. Dudley, N., ed. 2008. Guidelines for Applying Protected Area Management Categories. Gland: IUCN.

    Google Scholar 

  48. Edgar, G., R. Stuart-Smith, T. Willis, S. Kininmonth, S. Baker, S. Banks, N. Barrett, M. Becerro, A. Bernard, J. Berkhout, C. Buxton, S. Campbell, A. Cooper, M. Davey, S. Edgar, G. Försterra, D. Galván, A. Irigoyen, D. Kushner, R. Moura, P. Parnell, N. Shears, G. Soler, E. Strain, and R. Thomson. 2014. Global conservation outcomes depend on marine protected areas with five key features. Nature 506: 216–220.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  49. Edyvane, K., and S. Blanch. 2016. Marine protected areas and marine conservation in the Northern Territory. In Big, Bold and Blue: Lessons from Australia’s Marine Protected Areas, ed. J. Fitzsimons and G. Wescott, 217–240. Clayton: CSIRO.

    Google Scholar 

  50. Farr, M., N. Stoeckl, M. Esparon, D. Grainger, and S. Larson. 2016. Economic values and Indigenous protected areas across Northern Australia. Townsville: James Cook University.

    Google Scholar 

  51. Fitzsimons, J., and G. Wescott, eds. 2016. Big, Bold and Blue: Lessons from Australia’s Marine Protected Areas. Clayton: CSIRO.

    Google Scholar 

  52. Fraser, F., P. Donohoe, and P. Donohoe. 2008. Realising opportunities and recognising constraints: Jointly managed parks in the Northern Territory. In Protecting Country: Indigenous governance and management of protected areas, ed. D. Smyth and G. Ward, 19–30. Canberra: AIATSIS.

    Google Scholar 

  53. GAC (Girringun Aboriginal Corporation), Bandjin, Djiru, Girramay, Gugu Badhun, Gulnay, Nywaigi, Warrgamay and Warungnu TOs, and Regional Advisory & Innovation Network (RAIN) Pty Ltd. 2013. Girringun Region Indigenous Protected Areas Management Plan. Cardwell: Girringun Aboriginal Corporation.

    Google Scholar 

  54. Gambold, N. 2009. Djelk Indigenous Protected Area Plan of Management. Maningrida: Bawinanga Aboriginal Corporation.

    Google Scholar 

  55. GBRMPA (Great Barrier Reef Marine Park Authority). 2019. Traditional Use of Marine Resources Agreements. http://www.gbrmpa.gov.au/our-partners/traditional-owners/traditional-use-of-marine-resources-agreements. Accessed 3 Apr 2019.

  56. Gilligan, B. 2006a. The National Reserve System Programme: 2006 Evaluation. Canberra: Department of the Environment and Heritage.

    Google Scholar 

  57. Gilligan, B. 2006b. The Indigenous Protected Areas program: 2006 evaluation. Canberra: Department of Environment and Heritage.

    Google Scholar 

  58. Ginitjirrang M. 1994. An Indigenous marine protection strategy for Manbuynga ga Rulyapa (Arafura Sea), Unpublished manuscript. http://www.yolngunations.org/uploads/1/7/2/5/17257560/marine_protection_strategy_manbuynga_ga_rulyapa_1194.pdf. Accessed 18 Mar 2019.

  59. Gould, J. 2018. IPAs and MPAs in the NT. Paper presented at the Sea Country Workshop, Territory Natural Resource Management Conference. Darwin, 13th November 2018. https://researchers.cdu.edu.au/en/persons/jacqueline-gould/publications/. Accessed 9 May 2019.

  60. Govan, H., Aalbersberg, W., Tawake, A., and J Parks. 2008. Locally-Managed Marine Areas: A guide for practitioners. The Locally-Managed Marine Area Network. http://www.reefresilience.org/wp-content/uploads/LMMA-Guide-2008.pdf. Accessed 1 Feb 2020.

  61. Gunner, M. 2018. Fracking Moratorium Lifted – Strict laws to be in place before exploration or production can occur. Northern Territory Government Media Statement, 17th April 2018. http://newsroom.nt.gov.au/mediaRelease/25488. Accessed 21 Jan 2019.

  62. Hill, R., F. Walsh, J. Davies, and M. Sandford. 2011. Our Country Our Way: Guidelines for Australian Indigenous Protected Area Management Plans. Canberra: CSIRO Ecosystem Sciences and Australian Government Department of Sustainability, Environment, Water, Population and Communities.

    Google Scholar 

  63. Hill, R., P. Pert, J. Davies, C. Robinson, F. Walsh, and F. Falco-Mammone. 2013. Indigenous Land Management in Australia: Extent, scope, diversity, barriers and success factors. Cairns: CSIRO Ecosystem Sciences.

    Google Scholar 

  64. Hoffmann, B., S. Roeger, S. Stolton, and P. Wise. 2012. Dhimurru, looking after our land and sea. In Protected Landscapes and Wild Biodiversity: Volume 3 in the Values of Protected Landscapes and Seascapes Series, ed. N. Dudley and S. Stolton, 61–70. IUCN: Gland.

    Google Scholar 

  65. Howitt, R., K. Doohan, S. Suchet-Pearson, S. Cross, R. Lawrence, G.J. Lunkapis, S. Muller, S. Prout, and S. Veland. 2013. Intercultural capacity deficits. Asia Pacific Viewpoint 54: 126–140.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  66. Hunt, J., D. Smith, S. Garling, and W. Sanders, eds. 2008. Contested Governance: Culture, power and institutions in Indigenous Australia. Canberra: ANU Press.

    Google Scholar 

  67. Indigenous Circle of Experts. 2018. We Rise Together Achieving Pathway to Canada Target 1 through the creation of Indigenous Protected and Conserved Areas in the spirit and practice of reconciliation. Report of the Indigenous Circle of Experts and participants of the Northern Regional Gathering on Indigenous Protected and Conserved Areas (IPCAs) at Aurora Village in Yellowknife, NWT.

  68. IUCN (International Union for the Conservation of Nature). 2014. A primer on governance for protected areas and conserved areas. Gland: IUCN.

    Google Scholar 

  69. Jackson, M., R. Kennett, P. Bayliss, R. Warren, N. Waina, J. Adams, L. Cheinmora, T. Vigilante, E. Jungine, K. Woolagoodja, F. Woolagoodja, J. Umbagai, J. Holmes, and F. Weisenberger. 2015. Developing Collaborative Marine Turtle Monitoring in the Kimberley Region of Northern Australia. Ecological Management and Restoration 16 (3): 163–176.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  70. Jalunji-Warra People, and R. Shee. 2012. Bama Ngulkurrku Wawu Wawurrku Bundangka Bubungu Jalunbu: Healthy Mob, Healthy Land and Sea. Eastern Kuku Yalanji Indigenous Protected Area Management Plan Stage 2. Mossman: Jabalbina Yalanji Aboriginal Corporation https://maps.northwestatlas.org/files/montara/links_to_plans/QLD/7.%20IPA%2055%20Eastern%20Kuku%20Yalanji%20Jabalina%20Rangers%202012.pdf Accessed 12 June 2019.

    Google Scholar 

  71. Jones, P., W. Qiu, and E. De Santo. 2013. Governing marine protected areas: Social-ecological resilience through institutional diversity. Marine Policy 41: 5–13.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  72. Jones, E., T. Gray, D. Macintosh, and S. Stead. 2016. A comparative analysis of three marine governance systems for implementing the Convention on Biological Diversity. Marine Policy 66: 30–38.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  73. Jupiter, S., P. Cohen, R. Weeks, A. Tawake, and H. Govan. 2014. Locally Managed Marine Areas: multiple objectives and strategies. Pacific Conservation Biology 20 (2): 165–179.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  74. Kenchington, R. 2016. The evolution of marine conservation and marine protected areas in Australia. In Big, Bold and Blue: Lessons from Australia’s Marine Protected Areas, ed. J. Fitzsimons and G. Wescott, 29–42. Clayton: CSIRO.

    Google Scholar 

  75. Kossmann, C., J. Behagel, and M. Bailey. 2016. Action and inertia in collaborative governance. Marine Policy 72: 21–30.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  76. Krishnapillai, S. 2000. Sharing the Land: The Deen Maar Indigenous Protected Area. Arena Magazine 48: 31–34.

    Google Scholar 

  77. Langton, M., Z. Diamond, and L. Palmer. 2005. Community oriented protected areas for indigenous peoples and local communities. Journal of Political Ecology 12: 23–50.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  78. LHAC (Laynhapuy Homelands Aboriginal Corporation). 2017. Laynhapuy Indigenous Protected Area Plan of Management (2017-2022). Nhulunbuy: LHAC https://www.laynhapuy.com.au/wp-content/uploads/Laynhapuy-IPA-Management-Plan-2017-2022.pdf Accessed 23 May 2020.

    Google Scholar 

  79. Maclean, K., C. Robinson, and D. Natcher. 2015. Consensus Building or Constructive Conflict? Aboriginal Discursive Strategies to Enhance Participation in Natural Resource Management in Australia and Canada. Society and Natural Resources 28 (2): 197–211.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  80. Moorcroft, H. 2012. Wunambal Gaambera Healthy Country Plan. In Innovation for 21st Century Conservation, ed. P. Figgis, J. Fitzsimons, and J. Irving, 116–123. Sydney: Australian Committee for IUCN.

    Google Scholar 

  81. Moorcroft, H., E. Ignjic, S. Cowell, J. Goonack, S. Mangolomara, J. Oobagooma, R. Karadada, D. Williams, and N. Waina. 2012. Conservation planning in a cross-cultural context: The Wunambal Gaambera Healthy Country Project in the Kimberley, Western Australia. Ecological Management and Restoration 13 (1): 16–25.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  82. Moritz, C., E. Ens, S. Potter, and R. Catullo. 2013. The Australian monsoonal tropics: An opportunity to protect unique biodiversity and secure benefits for Aboriginal communities. Pacific Conservation Biology 19: 343–355.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  83. Moss, L. 2019. Local Decision Making: Protecting Country, Creating Jobs - Increasing Powers for Aboriginal Rangers. NTG Media Statement, 13th August 2019. http://newsroom.nt.gov.au/mediaRelease/31352 Accessed 11 Dec 2019.

  84. Moyses, M., and B. Panton. 2008. Indigenous partnerships in Northern Territory protected areas: Joint management of national parks and support for Indigenous Protected Areas. In Protecting Country: Indigenous governance and management of protected areas, ed. D. Smyth and G. Ward, 9–18. Canberra: AIATSIS.

    Google Scholar 

  85. MYAC (Mandingalbay Yidinji Aboriginal Corporation). 2009. Strategic Plan for Mandingalbay Yidinji Country. Queensland: MYAC http://www.djunbunji.com.au/files/8713/2219/6853/Mandingalbay_Plan.pdf Accessed 12 June 2019.

    Google Scholar 

  86. NIAA (National Indigenous Australians Agency). 2018. Fee for Service in Indigenous Land and Sea Management: Impact Assessment and Analysis. Commonwealth of Australia https://www.niaa.gov.au/sites/default/files/publications/fee-for-service-accessibility.pdf Accessed 2nd Feb 2020.

  87. NRMMC (Natural Resource Management Ministerial Council). 2010. Australia’s Strategy for the National Reserve System 2009-2030. Canberra: Australian Government.

    Google Scholar 

  88. NWAC and YMAP (Nyangumarta Warrarn Aboriginal Corporation & Yamatji Marlpa Aboriginal Corporation). 2015. Nyangumarta Warrarn Indigenous Protected Area, Plan of Management, 2015 to 2020. South Hedland: NWAC and YMAP https://maps.northwestatlas.org/files/montara/links_to_plans/WA/WA1_Nyangumarta%20Warrarn%20Aboriginal%20Corporation,%20Yamatji%20Marlpa%20Aboriginal%20Corporation%20-%202015%20-%20Nyangumarta%20Warrarn%20Indigenous%20Protected%20Area.pdf Accessed June 19 2019.

    Google Scholar 

  89. Oades, D. and R. Meister. 2013. Bardi Jawi Indigenous Protected Area Management Plan 2013-2023. Broome: Kimberley Land Council and Bardi Jawi Niimidiman Aboriginal Corporation RNTBC https://www.klc.org.au/s/bardi-jawi-healthy-country-plan.pdf Accessed 19 June 2019.

  90. Pathway to Canada Target 1. 2020. Pathway to Canada Target 1 https://www.conservation2020canada.ca/home Accessed 30 January 2020.

  91. Rist, P., and D. Smyth. 2013. The Indigenous Perspective: Sea Country Indigenous Protected Areas (IPAs). In Australia’s Marine Environment: Progress, Challenges and Opportunities, ed. K. Zischka, A. Leverington, and P. Figgis, 30–31. Sydney: Australian Committee for IUCN.

    Google Scholar 

  92. Rist, P., W. Rassip, D. Yunupingu, J. Wearne, J. Gould, M. Dulfer-Hyams, E. Bock, and D. Smyth D. 2019. Indigenous Protected Areas in Sea Country: Indigenous-driven collaborative marine protected areas in Australia. Aquatic Conservation. https://doi.org/10.1002/aqc.3052.

  93. Rose, B. 2012. Indigenous Protected Areas – innovation beyond the boundaries. In Innovation for 21st Century Conservation, ed. P. Figgis, J. Fitzsimons, and J. Irving, 50–55. Sydney: Australian Committee for IUCN.

    Google Scholar 

  94. Ross, H., C. Grant, C. Robinson, A. Izurieta, D. Smyth, and P. Rist. 2009. Co-management and Indigenous protected areas in Australia: achievements and ways forward. Australian Journal of Environmental Management 16 (4): 242–252.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  95. Russell-Smith, J., C. Yates, A. Edwards, P. Whitehead, B. Murphy, and M. Lawes. 2015. Deriving Multiple Benefits from Carbon Market-Based Savanna Fire Management: An Australian Example. PLoS One 10 (12): 21.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  96. Sandford, M. and J. Gould. 2018. Sea Country IPAs: looking back, planning the future, and working together. Paper presented at the Coast to Coast Conference, 16-20 April, 2018, Hobart. https://researchers.cdu.edu.au/en/persons/jacqueline-gould/publications/. Accessed 9 May 2019.

  97. Scherrer, P., A. Smith, M. Randall, and R. Dowling. 2011. Environmental and Cultural Implications of Visitor Access in the Kimberley Region. Australian Geographer 42 (3): 257–271.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  98. Sharp, N. 2002. Saltwater people: The waves of memory. N.S.W.: Allen & Unwin.

    Google Scholar 

  99. Sithole, D., H. Hunter-Xenie, H. Williams, J. Saegenschnitter, D. Yibarbuk, M. Ryan, O. Campion, B. Yunupingu, M. Liddy, E. Watts, C. Daniels, G. Daniels, P. Christophersen, V. Cubillo, E. Phillips, W. Marika, D. Jackson, and W. Barbour. 2008. Aboriginal land and sea management in the Top End: a community driven evaluation. Darwin: CSIRO.

    Google Scholar 

  100. Smyth, D. 2006. Indigenous Protected Areas in Australia. Parks 16 (1): 14–20.

    Google Scholar 

  101. Smyth, D. 2008. Just Add Water? Taking Indigenous Protected Areas into Sea Country. In Protecting Country: Indigenous governance and management of protected areas, ed. D. Smyth and G. Ward, 95–110. Canberra: AIATSIS.

    Google Scholar 

  102. Smyth, D. 2011. Guidelines for Country-based Planning. Cairns: Department of Environment and Resource Management, State of Queensland.

    Google Scholar 

  103. Smyth, D. 2015. Indigenous Protected Areas and ICCAs: Commonalities, contrasts and confusions. Parks 21 (2): 73–84.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  104. Smyth, D., and M. Isherwood. 2016. Protecting sea country: Indigenous peoples and marine protected areas in Australia. In Big, Bold and Blue: Lessons from Australia’s Marine Protected Areas, ed. J. Fitzsimons and G. Wescott, 307–325. Clayton: CSIRO.

    Google Scholar 

  105. Smyth, D., and J. Sutherland. 1996. Indigenous Protected Areas: conservation partnerships with Indigenous landholders. Australian Government: Consultancy Report for Environment Australia. Canberra.

    Google Scholar 

  106. Smyth, D., J. Gould, M. Ayre, E. Bock, M. Dulfer-Hyams, and T. Vernes. 2016. Indigenous-led Governance of Sea Country: Collaborative Planning and Indigenous Protected Areas. Indigenous Law Bull 8 (26): 15–20.

    Google Scholar 

  107. SVA (Social Ventures Australia Consulting). 2016. Consolidated Report on Indigenous Protected Areas Following Social Return on Investment Analyses. Canberra: Department of the Prime Minister and Cabinet http://www.socialventures.com.au/assets/Consolidated-SROI-Report-on-IPA-WoC.pdf. Accessed 9 May 2019.

    Google Scholar 

  108. Szabo, S., and D. Smyth. 2003. Indigenous Protected Areas in Australia: Incorporating Indigenous owned land into Australia’s national system of protected areas. In Innovative Governance: Indigenous peoples, local communities and protected areas, ed. H. Jaireth and D. Smyth, 145–154. New Delhi: Ane Books.

    Google Scholar 

  109. Thackway, R., S. Szabo, and D. Smyth. 1997. Indigenous protected areas: new opportunities for the conservation of biodiversity. In Conservation Outside Nature Reserves, ed. P. Hale and D. Lamb, 62–73. Queensland: Centre for Conservation Biology, University of Queensland.

    Google Scholar 

  110. URBIS. 2012. Social outcomes of the Working on Country program. Sydney: Urbis.

    Google Scholar 

  111. Vowles, K. 2018. Historic: Six Aboriginal Rangers Tasked to Protect our Fisheries. NTG Media Statement, 18th May 2018. http://newsroom.nt.gov.au/mediaRelease/25636 Accessed 14 Feb 2019.

  112. Wallis, J., and W. Rassip. 2018. Collaborative Frameworks for the Management of Sea Country. Paper presented at the Sea Country Workshop, Territory Natural Resource Management Conference. Darwin, 13th November 2018.

  113. Weir, J., C. Stacey, and K. Youngentob. 2011. The Benefits Associated with Caring for Country: Literature Review. Report for the Department of Sustainability, Environment, Water, Population and Communities (SEWPaC). Canberra: SEWPaC.

    Google Scholar 

  114. WGAC (Wunambal Gaambera Aboriginal Corporation). 2009. Wunambal Gaambera Healthy Country Plan Third Planning Workshop. Kalumburu, 23-25 June 2009, Workshop Report. https://www.conservationgateway.org/Documents/24c.%20report_3rd_WG_Healthy_Country_Plan_workshop.pdf. Accessed 18 Jan 2019.

  115. WGAC. 2010. Wunambal Gaambera Healthy Country Plan – Looking after Wunambal Gaambera Country 2010 – 2020. Wyndham: WGAC.

    Google Scholar 

  116. WGAC. 2014. Uunguu Visitor Pass: Uunguu Visitor Management Plan (March 2014). Wyndham: WGAC.

    Google Scholar 

  117. WGAC. 2018. Uunguu Indigenous Protected Area: Wundaagu (Saltwater) Country, Plan of Management 2016 – 2020. Wyndham: WGAC.

    Google Scholar 

  118. WGAC (Wunambal Gaambera Aboriginal Corporation). 2019. Uunguu Visitor Pass www.wunambalgaambera.org.au/uvp-landing-page. Accessed 14 Feb 2019.

  119. Yunupingu, D., and S. Muller. 2009. Cross-cultural challenges for Indigenous sea country management in Australia. Australian Journal of Environmental Management 16 (3): 158–167.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  120. Zurba, M. 2009. Bringing local synthesis into governance and management systems: The Girringun TUMRA case in Northern Queensland, Australia. Journal of the Royal Society of New Zealand 39: 4,179–4,182.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  121. Zurba, M. 2010. How well is co-management working? Perspectives, partnerships and power sharing along the way to an Indigenous Protected Area on Girringun Country. Masters of Natural Resource Management Dissertation, University of Manitoba.

  122. Zurba, M., H. Ross, A. Izurieta, P. Rist, E. Bock, and F. Berkes. 2012. Building Co-Management as a Process: Problem Solving Through Partnerships in Aboriginal Country, Australia. Environmental Management 49: 1130–1142.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  123. Zurba, M., K. Beazley, E. English, and J. Buchmann-Duck. 2019. Indigenous Protected and Conserved Areas (IPCAs), Aichi Target 11 and Canada’s Pathway to Target 1: Focusing Conservation on Reconciliation. Land 8 (1): 10.

    Article  Google Scholar 

Download references

Acknowledgments

The authors gratefully acknowledge the detailed input provided by the Wunambal Gaambera Aboriginal Corporation into various iterations of this paper.

Author information

Affiliations

Authors

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Jackie Gould.

Ethics declarations

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflicts of interest.

Additional information

Publisher’s note

Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.

Appendum

Appendum

Since the preparation of this paper in 2019, the 2018 CAPAD data has been released (DoE&E 2020). Although the Department of Environment had indicated to the authors that there may be a policy shift in how CAPAD is compiled (DoE&E, pers. com. 9/3/18), the marine components of IPAs have again been omitted from the textual version. The marine components of the Anindilyakwa and Yawuru IPAs (dedicated in 2016 and 2017) have been added to the spatial marine version of CAPAD.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Gould, J., Smyth, D., Rassip, W. et al. Recognizing the contribution of Indigenous Protected Areas to marine protected area management in Australia. Maritime Studies (2021). https://doi.org/10.1007/s40152-020-00212-z

Download citation

Keywords

  • Indigenous governance
  • Marine management
  • Indigenous Protected Areas
  • Marine protected areas
  • Sea Country
  • Australia