Poverty alleviation and resource governance are inextricably related. Mainstream resource management has been typically criticized by social scientists for the inherent power imbalances between fishery managers and small-scale fishing communities. Yet, while a number of mechanisms of collective action to address these power imbalances have been developed, they remain undertheorized. This paper builds upon first-hand experience of the authors in assisting the community of Biacou to strengthen the resource management role of a local ban called Tara bandu, as well as a qualitative study conducted one year after its implementation. Our argument is fourfold. First, we suggest that in geographies where mainstream resource management cannot be implemented, strengthening custom-based institutions in hybrid mechanisms provides an opportunity to promote a more sustainable use of coastal and marine resources in a cost-effective manner. Second, by analyzing the different narratives that were embedded in the process, we argue that community-based fisheries co-management can benefit from creating narrative assemblages. Third, we explore how the principles of agnosticism, generalized symmetry, and free association can be integrated in the work of fisheries managers to neutralize power imbalances with fishing communities. Fourth, we contribute to the current conceptualization of hybrid organizations in fisheries co-management.
This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.
Buy single article
Instant access to the full article PDF.
Tax calculation will be finalised during checkout.
Following Descola, “Whether they are self- ascribed or externally defined, whether they are crafted by humans or only perceived by humans, whether they are material or immaterial, the entities of which our universe is made have a meaning and identity solely through the relations that constitute them as such. Although relations precede the objects that they connect, they actualize themselves in the very process by which they produce their term” (Descola 2005).
We use the term custom-based instead of customary to avoid the perception by the reader that Tara bandu has survived unchanged throughout history. By custom-based, we consider those practices that are based on representations of the “customary” and are locally regarded as “based on tradition.” We also avoid the use of custom-like or others, that present it as an “invented tradition” created anew. On the negative political consequences and misunderstandings brought along by this latter notion, see the works of Linnekin (Linnekin 1991).
One of the classic Tara bandu reported during the Portuguese times (Cinatti 1965; King 1965) was the case of Be-malai (literally means “foreign waters”), a lake located in the current District of Bobonaro, near the hamlet of Biacou. Both the local narratives and ethnographic records from the mid-twentieth century recount the intervention of the Portuguese administrators in the open conflict between the peoples of the area of Balibó and Atabae for the ownership of the lake, over which two linguistic groups (Kemak-Atabae and Tetum-Balibó) had maintained regular wars.
Developing some form of what is locally referred to as the adat-plenat (tradition-government) style of governance (Meitzner Yoder 2005). Recent works by Roque (2011) report on the efforts by the Portuguese colonial powers to understand, codify, and use indigenous practices for the sake of colonial interests (Roque 2011).
Administratively, Timor-Leste is divided in 13 Districts. The Districts are subdivided into 65 Sub-districts, 442 Sucos and 2225 Aldeias (hamlets).
Note that the hamlet only accounts for 84 households.
To recount the history in terms of four phases or “compartments,” informants use: the ancestors time (tempo bei ala or avó sira nian), the Portuguese time (tempo portugués), the Indonesian time (tempo indonesia), and nowadays or the time of independence (tempo agora or tempo ukun an).
Note that we have avoided any detail in the transcription and have avoided recounting the origin narrative per se in this paper.
See Weber (2008) for a quick overview of the subsequent regulations during the United Nations Transitional Administration in East Timor.
The 2001 fisheries policy (MAF 2001) was notably oriented on sector development. The shift to an approach more focused on environmental protection of the domestic fisheries sector was linked to the progressive arrival of international development projects beginning in 2002, and was visible in the new drafted policy of 2005 (MAF 2007; MAFF 2005).
Elsewhere, we have proposed their recognition under the article aimed at regulating the co-management commissions within Fisheries Government Decree 5/2004 (Alonso et al. 2012)
Alonso, E., Wilson, C., Rodrigues, P., Pereira, M., & Griffiths, D. 2012. Policy and Practice: Recommendations for Sustainable Fisheries Development in Timor-Leste. Regional Fisheries Livelihoods Programme. Policy Paper TIM No. 2. Bangkok: Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. https://doi.org/10.13140/RG.2.1.1993.1608.
Alonso-Población, E. 2013. Fisheries and food security in Timor-Leste: the effects of ritual meat exchanges and market chains on fishing. Food Security 5 (6): 807–816. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12571-013-0308-2.
Alonso-Población, E. 2014. O mar é femia. Riesgo y trabajo entre los pescadores de una villa costera gallega. Madrid: Ministerio de Educación, Cultura y Deporte.
Alonso-Población, E., and A. Fidalgo Castro. 2014. Webs of legitimacy and discredit: narrative capital and politics of ritual in a Timor-Leste community. Anthropological Forum 24 (3): 245–266. https://doi.org/10.1080/00664677.2014.948381.
Alonso-Población, E., Rodrigues, P., & Lee, R. U. 2016. Tara Bandu as a coastal and marine resource management mechanism: a case study of Biacou, Timor-Leste. In Strengthening Organizations and Collective Action in Fisheries. Towards the Formulation of a Capacity Development Programme - Workshop Report and Case Studies. 4–6 November, Barbados, ed. Susana V. Siar and Daniela C. Kalikoski, 301–40. Rome: Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations.
Armitage, D. 2004. Nature-society dynamics, policy narratives, and ecosystem management: integrating perspectives on upland change and complexity in Central Sulawesi, Indonesia. Ecosystems 7 (7): 717–728. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10021-004-0183-y.
Barreto, M., and S.M. Silvestre. 2011. Bé-Malai: Mito e rito presentes na narrativa do grupo etnolinguístico Kemak, Distrito Bobonaro, Timor-Leste. Afro-Ásia 43: 129–153.
Bavinck, M., S. Jentof, J.J. Pascual-Fernández, and B. Marciniak. 2015. Interactive coastal governance: the role of pre-modern fisher organizations in improving governability. Ocean and Coastal Management 117 (November): 52–60. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ocecoaman.2015.05.012.
Berkes, F. 1996. Common-property resource management and Cree Indian fisheries in subartic Canada. In The question of the commons. The culture and ecology of communal resources, 66–91. Tucson: The University of Arizona Press.
Bicca, A. 2011. A diferença entre os iguais. Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul.
Biesta, G., Goodson, I., Tedder, M., & Adair, N. 2008. Learning from life: the role of narrative. 2. Learning Lives Working Paper Series. Stirling.
Bovensiepen, J. 2009. Spiritual landscapes of life and death in the central highlands of East Timor. Anthropological Forum 19 (3): 323–338. https://doi.org/10.1080/00664670903278437.
Bovensiepen, J. 2014. Paying for the dead: on the politics of death in independent Timor-Leste. The Asia Pacific Journal of Anthropology 15 (2): 103–122. https://doi.org/10.1080/14442213.2014.892528.
Brandão, C.E., M. Notaras, and T. Wassel. 2013. Tara Bandu: its role and use in community conflict prevention in Timor-Leste. Dili: Belun & The Asia Foundation.
Brightman, R.A. 1996. Conservation and resource depletion: the case of the boreal Forest Algonquians. In The question of the commons. The culture and ecology of communal resources, ed. Bonnie J. McCay and James M. Acheson, 121–141. Tucson: The University of Arizona Press.
Callon, M. 1986. Some elements of a sociology of translation: domestication of the scallops and the fishermen of St. Brieuc Bay. In Power, action and belief: a new sociology of knowledge? ed. John Law, 196–223. London: Routledge.
Carrier, J.G. 1996. Marine tenure and conservation in Papua New Guinea: problems of interpretation. In The question of the commons. The culture and ecology of communal resources, ed. Bonnie J. Mccay and James M. Acheson, 142–166. Tucson: The University of Arizona Press.
Chuenpagdee, R., P. Degnbol, M. Bavinck, S. Jentoft, D. Johnson, R. Pullin, and S. Williams. 2005. Challenges and concerns in capture fisheries and aquaculture. In Fish for Life. Interactive Governance for Fisheries, ed. Jan Kooiman, Maarten Bavinck, Svein Jentoft, and Roger Pullin. Amsterdam: Amsterdam University Press.
Cinatti, R. 1965. A pescaria da Bé-Malai. Mito E Ritual Geographica, 33–49.
Cochrane, K.L. 1999. Complexity in fisheries and limitations in the increasing complexity of fisheries management. ICES Journal of Marine Science 56: 917–926. https://doi.org/10.1006/jmsc.1999.0539.
Cohen, P.J., S.D. Jupiter, R. Weeks, A. Tawake, and H. Govan. 2014. Is community-based fisheries management realising multiple objectives? Examining evidence from the literature. SPC Traditional Marine Resource Management and Knowledge Information Bulletin 34 (December): 3–12.
Collier, S.J., and A. Ong. 2008. Global assemblages, anthropological problems. In Global assemblages: technology, politics, and ethics as anthropological problems, ed. Aihwa Ong and Stephen J. Collier, 3–21. London: Blackwell. https://doi.org/10.1002/9780470696569.ch1.
D’Andrea, C., O. da Silva, and L.S. Meitzner Yoder. 2003. The customary use of natural resources in Timor Leste. Dili: Oxfam.
De Carvalho, D.A. 2007. Konserva Natureza Liu Husi Tara Bandu. Dili: Haburas Foundation.
De Carvalho, D.A., and J. Coreia. 2011. Tara Bandu as traditional (local) ecological knowledge. In Local Knowledge of Timor! ed. Demetrio do Amaral De Carvalho, vol. 5, 52–67. Dili: UNESCO & Haburas Foundation.
DeLanda, M. 2006. A new philosophy of society: assemblage theory and social complexity. London & New York: Continuum.
Deleuze, G., and F. Guattari. 1987. A thousand plateaus: capitalism and schizophrenia. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press. https://doi.org/10.1017/CCO9780511753657.008.
Descola, P. 2005. Las Lanzas Del Crepúsculo. Relatos Jíbaros. Alta Amazonia. Buenos Aires: Fondo de Cultura Económica.
Durrenberger, E.P. 1990. Policy, power and science. The implementation of turtle excluder device in the U.S. Gulf of Mexico shrimp fishery. Maritime Anthropological Studies (MAST) 3 (1): 69–86.
Escobar, A. 1996. Construction nature. Futures 28 (4): 325–343. https://doi.org/10.1016/0016-3287(96)00011-0.
Escobar, A. 1998. Whose knowledge, whose nature? Biodiversity, conservation, and the political ecology of social movements. Journal of Political Ecology 5: 53–82.
Fairhead, J., and M. Leach. 1995. False forest history, complicit social analysis: rethinking some West African environmental narratives. World Dev 23 (6): 1023–1035. https://doi.org/10.1016/0305-750X(95)00026-9.
FAO. 2015. Voluntary guidelines for securing sustainable small-scale fisheries in the context of food security and poverty eradication. FAO. http://www.fao.org/docrep/field/003/ab825f/AB825F00.htm#TOC.
Fidalgo Castro, A. 2012. A reiligião em Timor Leste a partir de uma perspectiva histórico-antropológica. In Léxico Fataluku-Português, by A. M. Nácher Lluesa, ed. Alberto Fidalgo Castro and Efrén Legaspi Bouza, 79–118. Dili: Salesianos-AECID.
Fidalgo Castro, A. 2015. Dinámicas políticas y económicas en el dominio ritual y la vida cotidiana en Timor Oriental. Universidade da Coruña.
Fox, J. J., & Sather, C., eds. 2006. Origins, ancestry and alliance explorations in Austronesian Ethnography Canberra: ANU E Press.
Gerrard, S. 2000. The gender dimension of local festivals: the fishery crisis and women’s and men’s political actions in North Norwegian communities. Women’s Studies International Forum 23 (3): 299–309. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0277-5395(00)00088-1.
Goodson, I.F. 2013. Developing narrative theory. Life histories and personal representation. London: Routledge.
Gunn, G.C. 1999. Timor Loro Sae: 500 Anos. Lisboa: Livros do Oriente.
Hardin, G. 1968. The tragedy of the commons. Science 162 (June): 1243–1248. https://doi.org/10.1126/science.162.3859.1243.
Hicks, D. 2015. Rhetoric and the decolonization and recolonization of East Timor. New York: Routledge. https://doi.org/10.4324/9781315778068.
Jentoft, S. 1989. Fisheries co-management: delegating government responsibility to Fishermen’s organizations. Marine Policy 13 (2): 137–154.
Jentoft, S., M. Bavinck, D. Johnson, and K.T. Thomson. 2009. Fisheries co-management and legal pluralism: how an analytical problem becomes an institutional one. Human Organization 68 (1): 27–38. https://doi.org/10.17730/humo.68.1.h87q04245t63094r.
Johnsen, J.P., P. Holm, P. Sinclair, and D. Bavington. 2009. The cyborgization of the fisheries: on attempts to make fisheries management possible. Maritime Studies 7 (2): 9–34.
Johnson, D. 2006. Category, narrative, and value in the governance of small-scale fisheries. Marine Policy 30 (6): 747–756. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.marpol.2006.01.002.
Johnson, D., M. Bavinck, and J. Veitayaki. 2005a. Fish capture. In Fish for life. Interactive governance for fisheries, ed. Jan Kooiman, Maarten Bavinck, Svein Jentoft, and Roger Pullin, 71–92. Amsterdam: Amsterdam University Press.
Johnson, D., A. Thorpe, M. Bavinck, and M. Kulbicki. 2005b. Links in the fish chain. In Fish for life. Interactive governance for fisheries, ed. Jan Kooiman, Maarten Bavinck, Svein Jentoft, and Roger Pullin, 133–145. Amsterdam: Amsterdam University Press.
Jupiter, S.D., P.J. Cohen, R. Weeks, A. Tawake, and H. Govan. 2014. Locally-managed marine areas: multiple objectives and diverse strategies. Pacific Conservation Biology 20 (2): 165. https://doi.org/10.1071/PC140165.
King, M. J. E. 1965. Fishing rites at Be-Malai, Portuguese Timor. Records of the S.A. Museum 15 (11).
Kooiman, J., and M. Bavinck. 2005. The governance perspective. In Fish for life. Interactive governance for fisheries, ed. Jan Kooiman, Maarten Bavinck, Svein Jentoft, and Roger Pullin, 11–24. Amsterdam: Amsterdam University Press.
Kooiman, J., and R. Chuenpagdee. 2005. Governance and governability. In Fish for Life. Interactive Governance for Fisheries, ed. Jan Kooiman, Maarten Bavinck, Svein Jentoft, and Roger Pullin. Amsterdam: Amsterdam University Press.
Kurien, J. 2013. Collective action and organisations in small-scale fisheries. In Strengthening organizations and collective action in fisheries. A way forward in implementing the international guidelines for securing sustainable small-scale fisheries, ed. Daniela C. Kalikoski and Nicole Franz, 41–104. Rome: FAO.
Latour, B. 2001. La esperanza de pandora. Ensayos sobre la realidad de los estudios de la ciencia. Barcelona: Gedisa.
Latour, B. 2007. Nunca fuimos modernos. Ensayos de antropología simétrica. Buenos Aires: Siglo XXI.
Legaspi, E. 2011. Oleu Pitine. In Léxico Fataluku-Português, by A. M. Nacher Lluesa, ed. Alberto Fidalgo Castro and Efrén Legaspi Bouza, 41–78. Dili: Salesianos-AECID.
Linnekin, J. 1991. Cultural invention and the dilemma of authenticity. American Anthropologist 93 (2): 446–449.
MAF. 2001. Fish for the future: a strategic plan for the fisheries of East Timor. Dili: Ministry of Agriculture and Fisheries.
MAF. 2007. A policy and strategy for the fisheries development in Timor-Leste. Dili: Ministry of Agriculture and Fisheries.
MAFF. 2005. Fish for sustainability our strategic plan for fisheries (2006–2011). Dili: Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry & Fisheries.
Marcus, G.E., and E. Saka. 2006. Assemblage. Theory, Culture & Society 23 (2–3): 101–106. https://doi.org/10.1177/0263276406062573.
McCay, B.J., and J.M. Acheson. 1996. Human ecology of the commons. In The question of the commons. The culture and ecology of communal resources, ed. Bonnie J. McCay and James M. Acheson, 1–34. Tucson: The University of Arizona Press.
McGoodwin, J. 1990. Crisis in the World’s fisheries. People, problems, and policies. Stanford: Stanford University Press.
Mcwilliam, A. 2011. Exchange and resilience in Timor-Leste. Journal of the Royal Anthropological Institute 17 (4): 745–763. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-9655.2011.01717.x.
Meitzner Yoder, L. S. 2005. Custom, codification, collaboration: integrating the legacies of Land and Forest Authorities in Oecusse Enclave, East Timor. Yale University.
Meitzner Yoder, L. S. 2010. Political ecologies of wood and wax: sandalwood and beeswax as symbols and shapers of Customary Authority in the Oecusse Enclave, Timor Leste Journal of Political Ecology, 18.
Mills, D.J., Abernethy, K.A., King, J., Hoddy, E.T., Teoh, S.J., Larocca, P., Gonsalves, D., Fernandes, A., and Park, S.E. 2013. Developing Timor-Leste’s coastal economy: assessing potential climate change impacts and adaptation options. Final report to the Australian Government Coral Triangle Initiative on Coral Reefs, Fisheries and Food Security National Initiative. Penang: WorldFish.
Mills, D.J., A. Tilley, M. Pereira, D. Hellebrandt, and A. Fernandes. 2017. Livelihood diversity and dynamism in Timor-Leste: insights for coastal resource governance and livelihood development. Marine Policy 82: 206–215. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.marpol.2017.04.021.
Mubyarto, L.S., E. Loekman Soetrisno, I. Djatmiko Hudiyanto, and S.A. Mawarni. 1991. East Timor. The impact of integration. An Indonesian Socio-Anthropological Study. Northcote: Indonesia Resources and Information Program (IRIP).
Müller, M. 2015. Assemblages and actor-networks: rethinking socio-material power, politics and space. Geography Compass 9 (1): 27–41. https://doi.org/10.1111/gec3.12192.
Müller, M., and C. Schurr. 2016. Assemblage thinking and actor-network theory: conjunctions, disjunctions, cross-fertilisations. Transactions of the Institute of British Geographers 41 (3): 217–229. https://doi.org/10.1111/tran.12117.
Needham, S., Alonso, E., Wilson, C., Rodrigues, P., Pereira, M., and Griffiths, D. 2013. Community-based data gathering and co-management of marine resources in Timor-Leste. Regional Fisheries Livelihoods Programme. Field Project Document No 2013 1. Bangkok: Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations.
Noy, C. 2004. This trip really changed me. Backpackers’ narratives of self-change. Annals of Tourism Research 31 (1): 78–102. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.annals.2003.08.004.
Nunes, M. 2003. Forest conservation and fauna protection in East Timor. In Agriculture: New Directions for a New Nation — East Timor (Timor-Leste), ed. Helder Da Costa, Colin Piggin, Cesar J. Cruz, and James J. Fox. Canberra: Australian Centre for International Agricultural Research.
Orirana, G., F. Siota, P. Cohen, T. Atitete, A.M. Schwarz, and H. Govan. 2016. Spreading community-based resource management: testing the ‘lite-touch’ approach in Solomon Islands. SPC Traditional Marine Resource Management and Knowledge Information Bulletin 37 (November): 3–12.
Palmer, L. 2007. Developing Timor-Leste: the role of custom and tradition. In Exploring the Tensions of Nation Building in Timor-Leste. SSEE research paper no.1, ed. Lisa Palmer, Sara Niner, and Lia Kent. Melbourne: University of Melbourne.
Palmer, L., and D.A. De Carvalho. 2008. Nation building and resource management: the politics of ‘nature’ in Timor-Leste. Geoforum 39 (3): 1321–1332. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.geoforum.2007.09.007.
Pompeia, J.M., D.A. De Carvalho, H.P. Vieira, M. Inmaculada, A. Delimas, and Aurelia Rodrigues. 2003. Tara Bandu: a wisepoint of East Timor’s traditional ecology. Dili: Haburas Foundation & Japan International Cooperation Agency.
Rabinow, P. 2003. Anthropos today: reflections on modern equipment. Princeton: Princeton University Press. https://doi.org/10.1215/08992363-2683630.
Roque, R. 2011. Etnografias Coloniais, Tecnologias Miméticas: A Administração Colonial e os Usos e Costumes em Timor-Leste no Final do Século XIX. In Ita Maun Alin… O Livro Do Irmão Mais Novo. Afinidades Antropológicas em torno de Timor-Leste, edited by Silva, Kelly and Sousa, Lúcio, 155–68. Lisboa: Colibri.
Sahlins, M. 1996. The sadness of sweetness. Current Anthropology 37 (3): 395–428.
Shepherd, C.J. 2009. Participation, authority, and distributive equity in east Timorese development. East Asian Science, Technology and Society: An International Journal 3 (2–3): 315–342. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12280-009-9098-1.
Silva, K. 2013. Negotiating tradition and nation: mediations and mediators in the making of urban Timor-Leste. The Asia Pacific Journal of Anthropology 14 (5): 455–470 Taylor & Francis. https://doi.org/10.1080/14442213.2013.821155.
Soares, D.B. 2004. Nahe Biti : the philosophy and process of grassroots reconciliation (and justice) in East Timor. The Asia Pacific Journal of Anthropology 5 (1): 15–34. https://doi.org/10.1080/14444221042000201715.
Sønvisen, S. 2013. Recruitment to the Norwegian fishing fleet: storylines, paradoxes, and pragmatism in Norwegian fisheries and recruitment policy. Maritime Studies 12 (1): 8. https://doi.org/10.1186/2212-9790-12-8.
Sousa, L. 2009. Denying peripheral status, claiming a role in the nation: sacred words and ritual practices as legitimating identity of a local community in the context of the new nation. In Timor-Leste: How to Build a New Nation in Southeast Asia in the 21st Century?, edited by Cabasset-Semedo, Christine and Durand, Frédéric, 105–20. Paris: Irasec, Occasional Paper # 9.
Vischer, M.P. 2009. Precedence. Social differentiation in the Austronesian World. Canberra: ANU E Press.
von Benda-Beckmann, F. 2002. Who’s afraid of legal pluralism? The Journal of Legal Pluralism and Unofficial Law 34 (47): 37–82. https://doi.org/10.1080/07329113.2002.10756563.
Watson, T.J. 2009. Narrative, life story and manager identity: a case study in autobiographical identity work. Human Relations 62 (3): 425–452. https://doi.org/10.1177/0018726708101044.
Watson, T.J., and D.H. Watson. 2012. Narratives in society, organizations and individual identities: an ethnographic study of pubs, identity work and the pursuit of ‘the real’. Human Relations 65 (6): 683–704. https://doi.org/10.1177/0018726712440586.
Weber, L. 2008. Assessing management challenges and options in the coastal zone of Timor-Leste. Brisbane: Griffith Centre for Coastal Management.
The work upon which this paper was based was possible thanks to the support of the Government of Spain through the FAO executed Regional Fisheries Livelihoods Programme for South and Southeast Asia in Timor-Leste. Further support was provided by the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) to develop the qualitative study one year after the implementation of the project.
An earlier version of the present case study was presented during the workshop on Strengthening organizations and collective action in fisheries—Towards the formulation of a capacity development programme, held in Barbados on 4–6 November 2014. The workshop was organized by the Centre for Resource Management and Environmental Studies of The University of West Indies and financially supported by the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO). A further version was presented at the MARE Conference in 2015. This journal paper was discussed and reviewed at the write-shop on Strengthening collective action and organization in small-scale fisheries for poverty reduction organized by FAO on 16–18 November 2016 in Rome, Italy. Strengthening collective action and organizations is one of FAO’s pillars to reducing rural poverty. The authors thank FAO for supporting the development of this work.
The want to extend their acknowledgement to Marteen Banvick for his useful insights on an earlier version of the paper. This paper benefited from comments and the interaction with all the workshop participants: Svein Jentoft, Paul Onyango, John Kurien, Susana V. Siar, Antonio Diegues, Anna Child, Patrick McConney, and Vivienne Solis Rivera.
The authors declare that they have no competing interests.
About this article
Cite this article
Alonso-Población, E., Rodrigues, P., Wilson, C. et al. Narrative assemblages for power-balanced coastal and marine governance. Tara Bandu as a tool for community-based fisheries co-management in Timor-Leste. Maritime Studies 17, 55–67 (2018). https://doi.org/10.1007/s40152-018-0093-9
- Community-based fisheries management
- Fisheries co-management
- Coastal and marine governance
- Collective action