Advertisement

Stakeholder perceptions of the social dimensions of marine and coastal conservation in Guatemala

  • Maria J. Gonzalez-BernatEmail author
  • Julian Clifton
  • Natasha Pauli
Research
  • 37 Downloads

Abstract

Understanding the social dimensions of marine and coastal conservation is considered integral to better inform governance and management actions. Perceptions are recognized as a way to understand these dimensions, which can evidence limitations of current efforts, while facilitating more informed policy-making and provide a basis for more robust management actions. Following a qualitative and case study approach, this paper utilizes stakeholder interviews to explore the perceptions on marine ecosystems and current management actions that include marine protected areas (MPAs) in the Central American country of Guatemala. Results identify similarities and contrasts in the perception of marine conservation and MPAs, where weak local governments and limited community participation in the decision-making process can be considered the underlying problems. Recommendations are made which can capitalize upon multi-level improvements that need to integrate all stakeholder groups. Improvements should also consider the regional setting and must reflect Guatemala’s historical and social context. This paper highlights that stakeholder perceptions need a central role to further improve the quality of governance in coastal Guatemala. Recommendations can further assist other developing countries facing similar challenges.

Keywords

Guatemala Governance Stakeholder perceptions Marine ecosystems Marine protected areas 

Notes

Acknowledgments

The first author would like to acknowledge all the participants for their time and interest, including officials of the National Council of Protected Areas (CONAP), the Fisheries Unit (DIPESCA), and the Ministry of Environment and Natural Resources (MARN), for their time and contacts of other organizations. A special thanks to the Coordinator of the GEF Project in Guatemala, Raquel Sigüenza, for her support with the fieldtrip to the Pacific Region to interview local municipalities, and to Fernando García for his support, insights, and friendship.

Funding information

Financial support was provided by the Department of Foreign Affairs and Trade of the Australian Government through the Australia Awards Scholarship (ID: AAS1401414), and by the UWA School of Agriculture and Environment.

Compliance with ethical standards

The use of human data was assessed and approved by The University of Western Australia Human Research Ethics Committee (file reference RA/4/1/7198).

References

  1. Adams, W., and J. Hutton. 2007. People, parks and poverty: Political ecology and biodiversity conservation. Conservation and Society 5 (2): 147–183.Google Scholar
  2. Agardy, T., G.N. di Sciara, and P. Christie. 2011. Mind the gap: Addressing the shortcomings of marine protected areas through large scale marine spatial planning. Marine Policy 35: 226–232.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Andrade, H. A. 2015. The ecology of a tropical bay and social aspects of small-scale fisheries: Implications for management Philosophiae Doctor UiT - The Arctic University of Norway.Google Scholar
  4. Andrade, H., and G. Midré. 2011. The merits of consensus: Small-scale fisheries as a livelihood buffer in Livingston, Guatemala. In Poverty Mosaics: Realities and Prospects in Small-Scale Fisheries, 427–448. Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Arrivillaga, A., Arreola, M.E 2016. The Mesoamerican Barrier Reef System. Marine Transboundary Conservation and Protected Areas. P. Mackelworth, Taylor and Francis: 256-270.Google Scholar
  6. Ban, N.C., and A. Frid. 2018. Indigenous peoples’ rights and marine protected areas. Marine Policy 87: 180–185.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Ban, N.C., M. Mills, J. Tam, C.C. Hicks, S. Klain, N. Stoeckl, M.C. Bottrill, J. Levine, R.L. Pressey, T. Satterfield, and K.M.A. Chan. 2013. A social–ecological approach to conservation planning: embedding social considerations. Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment 11 (4): 194–202.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Barclay, K., M. Voyer, N. Mazur, A.M. Payne, S. Mauli, J. Kinch, M. Fabinyi, and G. Smith. 2017. The importance of qualitative social research for effective fisheries management. Fisheries Research 186: 426–438.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Bennett, N.J. 2016. Using perceptions as evidence to improve conservation and environmental management. Conservation Biology 30 (3): 582–592.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Bennett, N.J., and P. Dearden. 2014. Why local people do not support conservation: Community perceptions of marine protected area livelihood impacts, governance and management in Thailand. Marine Policy 44: 107–116.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Bennett, N.J., R. Roth, S.C. Klain, K. Chan, P. Christie, D.A. Clark, G. Cullman, D. Curran, T.J. Durbin, G. Epstein, A. Greenberg, M.P. Nelson, J. Sandlos, R. Stedman, T.L. Teel, R. Thomas, D. Veríssimo, and C. Wyborn. 2017. Conservation social science: Understanding and integrating human dimensions to improve conservation. Biological Conservation 205: 93–108.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Boix Morán, J.L. 2011. Evaluación de las alternativas para la producción de frío con energías renovables en centros de acopio de la pesca artesanal en el Pacífico de Guatemala. Guatemala, Secretaría Nacional de Ciencia y Tecnología -SENACYT 148.Google Scholar
  13. Borrini-Feyerabend, G., T.J.N. Dudley, B. Lassen, N.P. Broome, A. Phillips, and T. Sandwith. 2013. Governance of protected areas: From understanding to action. Switzerland: Gland.Google Scholar
  14. Brinson, A.A., and K. Wallmo. 2015. Stakeholder attitudes toward ecosystem-based fisheries management. Marine Fisheries Review 77.Google Scholar
  15. Cabrera, M., N. Lustig, and H.E. Morán. 2015. Fiscal policy, inequality, and the ethnic divide in Guatemala. World Development 76: 263–279.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Campbell, L.M. 2002. Conservation narratives in Costa Rica: conflict and co-existence. Development and Change 33 (1): 29–56.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Carrera, J. L., M. M. López-Selva and E. López 2012. Zona marino costera: nuevas olas extractivas. Perfil Ambiental de Guatemala 2010-2012. Vulnerabilidad local y creciente construcción de riesgo. Guatemala, Universidad Rafael Landívar, a través del Instituto de Agricultura, Recursos Naturales y Ambiente (IARNA) de Guatemala, Centroamérica: 147-160.Google Scholar
  18. Cash, D., W. Clark, F. Alcock, N. Dickson, N. Eckley, and J. Jäger. 2002. Salience, credibility, legitimacy and boundaries: Linking research, assessment and decision-making. In Harvard University Faculty Research Papers Working Series RWP02-046.Google Scholar
  19. CATHALAC and SIA-MARN 2012. Cobertura actual del mange en Guatemala, a través de técnicas de percepción remota. Guatemala, Part of the project "Manejo Integral de las Zonas Costeras y Gestión Sostenible de los Mangles de Guatemala, Honduras y Nicaragua” with PNUMA-MARN.Google Scholar
  20. Charbonneau, A. 2012. Integrated coastal management:'Wicked'problems and'clumsy'solutions. The Arbutus Review 3 (1): 23–36.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Charles, A., and L. Wilson. 2009. Human dimensions of marine protected areas. ICES Journal of Marine Science 66 (1): 6–15.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Chollett, I., L. Garavelli, D. Holstein, L. Cherubin, S. Fulton, and S.J. Box. 2017. A case for redefining the boundaries of the Mesoamerican Reef Ecoregion. Coral Reefs 36 (4): 1039–1046.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Christie, P. 2004. Marine protected areas as biological successes and social failures in Southeast Asia. American Fisheries Society Symposium.Google Scholar
  24. Comisión Portuaria Nacional 2010. El Sistema Portuario Nacional en Apoyo al Comercio Exterior de Guatemala 2009. Dirección de Estudios y Proyectos. Guatemala, Comisión Portuaria Nacional: 116.Google Scholar
  25. CONAP 2010. Ley de Áreas Protegicas y su Reglamento. Guatemala. Decreto No. 4-89 y Acuerdo Gubernativo No. 759-90: 96.Google Scholar
  26. CONAP 2012. Convenio de Cooperación para la Protección y Aprovechamiento Sostenible de los Recurosos Hidrobiológicos en Bahía La Graciosa y Laguna Santa Isabel, Refugio de Vida Silvestre Punta de Manabique (RVSPM), Izabal. Guatemala, Consejo Nacional de Áreas Protegidas 8.Google Scholar
  27. CONAP 2014. V Informe Nacional de Cumplimiento a los Acuerdos del Convenio sobre la Diversidad Biológica. Documento Técnico No. 3-2014. Guatemala, Consejo Nacional de Áreas Protegidas -CONAP: 109.Google Scholar
  28. CONAP 2015. Plan Operativo Bienal, 2015-2016, in Proyecto de Conservación de Recursos Marinos en Centroaméerica, Convenio de Financiación: BMZ 2007 66 667. Guatemala, Consejo Nacional de Áreas Protegidas: 39.Google Scholar
  29. CONAP and MARN 2009. Biodiversidad Marina de Guatemala: Análisis de Vacíos y Estrategias para su Conservación. Guatemala City, Guatemala.Google Scholar
  30. Cross, H. 2016. Displacement, disempowerment and corruption: challenges at the interface of fisheries, management and conservation in the Bijagós Archipelago, Guinea-Bissau. Oryx 50 (4): 693–701.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Day, J.C. 2002. Zoning—lessons from the Great Barrier Reef marine park. Ocean & coastal management 45 (2-3): 139–156.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. FAO. 2005. Resumen informativo sobre la pesca por países: Guatemala. FID/CP/GTM, Food and Agriculture Organization 52.Google Scholar
  33. Ferse, S.C.A., M.M. Costa, K.S. Máñez, D.S. Adhuri, and M. Glaser. 2010. Allies, not aliens: Increasing the role of local communities in marine protected area implementation. Environmental Conservation 37: 23–34.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Fundary CONAP and TNC (2006). Plan de Conservacion de Area 2007-2011 Refugio de Vida Silvestre Punta de Manabique. Guatemala, Fundación Mario Dary Rivera, Consejo Nacional de Areas Protegidas, The Nature Conservancy: 155.Google Scholar
  35. Gill, D.A., M.B. Mascia, G.N. Ahmadia, L. Glew, S.E. Lester, M. Barnes, I. Craigie, E.S. Darling, C.M. Free, J. Geldmann, S. Holst, O.P. Jensen, A.T. White, X. Basurto, L. Coad, R.D. Gates, G. Guannel, P.J. Mumby, H. Thomas, S. Whitmee, S. Woodley, and H.E. Fox. 2017. Capacity shortfalls hinder the performance of marine protected areas globally. Nature 543: 665–669.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Gobierno de Guatemala. 2002a. Código Municipal. Congreso de la República de Guatemala. Guatemala. 87: 12–2002.Google Scholar
  37. Gobierno de Guatemala. 2002b. Ley de Consejos de Desarrollo. Congreso de la República de Guatemala. Guatemala. Decreto 60: 11–2002.Google Scholar
  38. Gobierno de Guatemala. 2002c. Ley General de Descentralización. Congreso de la República de Guatemala. Guatemala. Decreto 21: 14–2002.Google Scholar
  39. Gonzalez-Bernat, M.J., and J. Clifton. 2017. Living with our backs to the sea: A critical analysis of marine and coastal governance in Guatemala. Marine Policy 81: 9–20.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Gurney, G.G., J.E. Cinner, J. Sartin, R.L. Pressey, N.C. Ban, N.A. Marshall, and D. Prabuning. 2016. Participation in devolved commons management: Multiscale socioeconomic factors related to individuals’ participation in community-based management of marine protected areas in Indonesia. Environmental Science & Policy 61: 212–220.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Halik, A., M. Verweij, and A. Schlüter. 2018. How marine protected areas are governed: A cultural theory perspective. Sustainability 10 (1): 252.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Havard, L., L. Brigand, and M. Cariño. 2015. Stakeholder participation in decision-making processes for marine and coastal protected areas: Case studies of the south-western Gulf of California, Mexico. Ocean & Coastal Management 116: 116–131.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Hay, I. 2010. Qualitative research methods in human geography. Canada: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  44. Heyman, W.D., and P. Granados-Dieseldorff. 2012. The voice of the fishermen of the Gulf of Honduras: Improving regional fisheries management through fisher participation. Fisheries Research 125: 129–148.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Hidalgo, H., and A. Méndez. 2007. Diagnóstico organizacional y de necesidades en las comunidades pesqueras en el Sistema Arrecifal Mesoamericano. Livingston, Guatemala, MAR Fund 99.Google Scholar
  46. Hunt, J., J.C. Altman, and K. May. 2009. Social benefits of Aboriginal engagement in natural resource management. Centre for Aboriginal Economic Policy Research.Google Scholar
  47. Hutton, J., W.M. Adams, and J.C. Murombedzi. 2005. Back to the barriers? Changing narratives in biodiversity conservation. Forum for Development Studies 32 (2): 341–370.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. International Business Publications, U. S. A. 2007. Guatemala Mineral and mining sector investment & business guide. In international business publications USA.Google Scholar
  49. Jones, P.J.S. 2002. Marine protected area strategies: issues, divergences and the search for middle ground. Reviews in Fish Biology and Fisheries 11 (3): 197–216.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Khan, A.S., and B. Neis. 2010. The rebuilding imperative in fisheries: Clumsy solutions for a wicked problem? Progress in Oceanography 87 (1): 347–356.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Lauer, M., and S. Aswani. 2010. Indigenous knowledge and long-term ecological change: Detection, interpretation, and responses to changing ecological conditions in pacific island communities. Environmental Management 45 (5): 985–997.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. MAGA 2002-2005. Ley General de Pesca y Acuicultura (Decreto 80-2002) y su Reglamento (Acuerdo Gubernativo 223-2005). Ministerio de Agricultura Ganadería y Alimentación. Guatemala. Decreto 80-2002 and Acuerdo Gubernativo 223-2005: 115.Google Scholar
  53. MAR Fund 2017. Conservation of Marine Resources in C.A. -Project.Google Scholar
  54. MARN and CONAP 2014. Conservation and sustainable use of biodiversity in coastal and marine protected areas (MPAs) Guatemala Global Environmental Fund -GEF: 100.Google Scholar
  55. Mascia, M.B., C.A. Claus, and R. Naidoo. 2010. Impacts of marine protected areas on fishing communities. Conservation Biology 24 (5): 1424–1429.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Millennium Ecosystem Assessment. 2005. Ecosystems and human wellbeing. Washington DC: Island Press.Google Scholar
  57. Mojica, A. M. 2015. Evaluación de la Efectividad de Manejo en las cinco Áreas Protegidas del Proyecto - Fase II. Proyecto Conservación de Recursos Marinos en Centroamérica. , Fondo para le Sistema Arrecifal Mesoamericano: 243.Google Scholar
  58. Mojica, A. M., Arrivillaga, A. 2014. Evaluación Rápida de la Efectividad de Manejo de las cuatro Áreas Protegidas del Proyecto - FASE I. Proyecto Proyecto Conservación de Recursos Marinos en Centroamérica. Guatemala, Fondo para el Sistema Arrecifal Mesoamericano: 241.Google Scholar
  59. Monterroso, N. 2012. Marco Sociopolítico y económico. El contexto político como condicionante de la gestión ambienta. Perfil Ambiental de Guatemala 2010-2012. Vulnerabilidad local y creciente construcción de riesgo. Guatemala, Universidad Rafael Landívar, a través del Instituto de Agricultura, Recursos Naturales y Ambiente (IARNA) de Guatemala, Centroamérica.: 17-35.Google Scholar
  60. Muccio, C. 2015. Guía para la conservación de las tortugas marinas en Guatemala, con énfasis en el manejo de tortugarios. Guatemala, Asociación de Rescate y Conservación de Vida Silvestre (ARCAS): 53.Google Scholar
  61. Nordlund, L.M., U. Kloiber, E. Carter, and S. Riedmiller. 2013. Chumbe Island Coral Park—governance analysis. Marine Policy 41: 110–117.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Perez de Oliveira, L. 2013. Fishers as advocates of marine protected areas: a case study from Galicia (NW Spain). Marine Policy 41: 95–102.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Pérez, A., C. Chin-Ta, and F. Afero. 2009. Belize-Guatemala territorial dispute and its implications for conservation. Tropical Conservation Science 2 (1): 11–24.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Pomeroy, R., and F. Douvere. 2008. The engagement of stakeholders in the marine spatial planning process. Marine Policy 32 (5): 816–822.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Pomeroy, R.S., L.M. Watson, J.E. Parks, and G.A. Cid. 2005. How is your MPA doing? A methodology for evaluating the management effectiveness of marine protected areas. Ocean & Coastal Management 48 (7–8): 485–502.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. QSR International Pty Ltd 2015. NVivo qualitative data analysis software.Google Scholar
  67. SEGEPLAN 2011a. Plan de Desarrollo Departamental de Izabal. Guatemala, Secretaría de Planificación y Programación de la Presidencia, a través de la Dirección de Ordenamiento Territorial: 97.Google Scholar
  68. SEGEPLAN 2011b. Plan de Desarrollo Integral del Litoral del Pacífico. Guatemala, Secretaría de Planificación y Programación de la Presidencia, a través de la Dirección de Ordenamiento Territorial.: 164.Google Scholar
  69. TNC and MARN 2009. Importancia Económica de los Recursos Marino Costeros y su Relevancia en el Desarrollo de una Política Nacional para Guatemala. Guatemala, The Nature Conservancy, Ministerio de Ambiente y Recursos Naturales -MARN.Google Scholar
  70. Yáñez-Arancibia, A., D. Zárate Lomelı́, M. Gómez Cruz, R. Godı́nez Orantes, and V. Santiago Fandiño. 1999. The ecosystem framework for planning and management the Atlantic coast of Guatemala. Ocean & Coastal Management 42 (2–4): 283–317.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.School of Agriculture and Environment and the Oceans InstituteUniversity of Western AustraliaCrawleyAustralia

Personalised recommendations