MAX phases (Ti3SiC2, Ti3AlC2, V2AlC, Ti4AlN3, etc.) are layered ternary carbides/nitrides, which are generally processed and researched as structure ceramics. Selectively removing A layer from MAX phases, MXenes (Ti3C2, V2C, Mo2C, etc.) with two-dimensional (2D) structure can be prepared. The MXenes are electrically conductive and hydrophilic, which are promising as functional materials in many areas. This article reviews the milestones and the latest progress in the research of MAX phases and MXenes, from the perspective of ceramic science. Especially, this article focuses on the conversion from MAX phases to MXenes. First, we summarize the microstructure, preparation, properties, and applications of MAX phases. Among the various properties, the crack healing properties of MAX phase are highlighted. Thereafter, the critical issues on MXene research, including the preparation process, microstructure, MXene composites, and application of MXenes, are reviewed. Among the various applications, this review focuses on two selected applications: energy storage and electromagnetic interference shielding. Moreover, new research directions and future trends on MAX phases and MXenes are also discussed.
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This work was supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (51772077, 51602184, and 11872171), Program for Innovative Research Team (in Science and Technology) in the University of Henan Province (19IRTSTHN027), China Postdoctoral Science Foundation (2019M652537), Henan Postdoctoral Foundation (19030065), Henan Province Key Science and Technology Research Projects (202102310628), and the Foundation of Henan Educational Committee (20B430006). We thank the graduate students in our groups (Yitong GUO and Ru YANG from Henan Polytechnic University, and Meng WU and Lu LIU from Hohai University) for helping collect data and organize the manuscript. We also acknowledge the contribution of Dr. Renfei CHENG to this review.
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Zhou, A., Liu, Y., Li, S. et al. From structural ceramics to 2D materials with multi-applications: A review on the development from MAX phases to MXenes. J Adv Ceram 10, 1194–1242 (2021). https://doi.org/10.1007/s40145-021-0535-5
- MAX phases