The growing demand for high-power-density electric and electronic systems has encouraged the development of energy-storage capacitors with attributes such as high energy density, high capacitance density, high voltage and frequency, low weight, high-temperature operability, and environmental friendliness. Compared with their electrolytic and film counterparts, energy-storage multilayer ceramic capacitors (MLCCs) stand out for their extremely low equivalent series resistance and equivalent series inductance, high current handling capability, and high-temperature stability. These characteristics are important for applications including fast-switching third-generation wide-bandgap semiconductors in electric vehicles, 5G base stations, clean energy generation, and smart grids. There have been numerous reports on state-of-the-art MLCC energy-storage solutions. However, lead-free capacitors generally have a low-energy density, and high-energy density capacitors frequently contain lead, which is a key issue that hinders their broad application. In this review, we present perspectives and challenges for lead-free energy-storage MLCCs. Initially, the energy-storage mechanism and device characterization are introduced; then, dielectric ceramics for energy-storage applications with aspects of composition and structural optimization are summarized. Progress on state-of-the-art energy-storage MLCCs is discussed after elaboration of the fabrication process and structural design of the electrode. Emerging applications of energy-storage MLCCs are then discussed in terms of advanced pulsed power sources and high-density power converters from a theoretical and technological point of view. Finally, the challenges and future prospects for industrialization of lab-scale lead-free energy-storage MLCCs are discussed.
Winter M, Brodd RJ. What are batteries, fuel cells, and supercapacitors?. Chem Rev 2004, 104: 4245–4270.
Collins J, Gourdin G, Foster M, et al. Carbon surface functionalities and SEI formation during Li intercalation. Carbon 2015, 92: 193–244.
Yao ZH, Song Z, Hao H, et al. Homogeneous/inhomogeneousstructured dielectrics and their energy-storage performances. Adv Mater 2017, 29: 1601727.
Li F, Zhai JW, Shen B, et al. Recent progress of ecofriendly perovskite-type dielectric ceramics for energy storage applications. J Adv Dielect 2018, 8: 1830005.
Hao XH. A review on the dielectric materials for high energy-storage application. J Adv Dielect 2013, 3: 1330001.
Zou KL, Dan Y, Xu HJ, et al. Recent advances in lead-free dielectric materials for energy storage. Mater Res Bull 2019, 113: 190–201.
Xu R, Feng YJ, Wei XY, et al. Analysis on nonlinearity of antiferroelectric multilayer ceramic capacitor (MLCC) for energy storage. IEEE Trans Dielectr Electr Insul 2019, 26: 2005–2011.
Love GR. Energy storage in ceramic dielectrics. J Am Ceram Soc 1990, 73: 323–328.
Li Q, Chen L, Gadinski MR, et al. Flexible high-temperature dielectric materials from polymer nanocomposites. Nature 2015, 523: 576–579.
Pan H, Li F, Liu Y, et al. Ultrahigh-energy density lead-free dielectric films via polymorphic nanodomain design. Science 2019, 365: 578–582.
Wang J-J, Su Y-J, Wang B, et al. Strain engineering of dischargeable energy density of ferroelectric thin-film capacitors. Nano Energy 2020, 72: 104665.
Yang LT, Kong X, Li F, et al. Perovskite lead-free dielectrics for energy storage applications. Prog Mater Sci 2019, 102: 72–108.
Maurya D, Pramanick A, Viehland D. Ferroelectric Materials for Energy Harvesting and Storage. UK: Woodhead Publishing, 2020.
Milliken AD, Bell AJ, Scott JF. Dependence of breakdown field on dielectric (interelectrode) thickness in base-metal electroded multilayer capacitors. Appl Phys Lett 2007, 90: 112910.
Wang HX, Liu BB, Wang XH. Effects of dielectric thickness on energy storage properties of surface modified BaTiO3 multilayer ceramic capacitors. J Alloys Compd 2020, 817: 152804.
Wang HX, Zhao PY, Chen LL, et al. Effects of dielectric thickness on energy storage properties of 0.87BaTiO3-0.13Bi(Zn2/3(Nb0.85Ta0.15)1/3)O3 multilayer ceramic capacitors. J Eur Ceram Soc 2020, 40: 1902–1908.
Cai ZM, Wang XH, Li LT. Phase-field modeling of electromechanical breakdown in multilayer ceramic capacitors. Adv Theory Simul 2019, 2: 1800179.
Wang HS, Liu YC, Yang TQ, et al. Ultrahigh energy-storage density in antiferroelectric ceramics with field-induced multiphase transitions. Adv Funct Mater 2019, 29: 1807321.
Liu XH, Li Y, Hao XH. Ultra-high energy-storage density and fast discharge speed of (Pb0.98-xLa0.02Srx)(Zr0.9Sn0.1)0.995O3 antiferroelectric ceramics prepared via the tape-casting method. J Mater Chem A 2019, 7: 11858–11866.
Chao S, Dogan F. BaTiO3-SrTiO3 layered dielectrics for energy storage. Mater Lett 2011, 65: 978–981.
Puli VS, Pradhan DK, Chrisey DB, et al. Structure, dielectric, ferroelectric, and energy density properties of (1-x)BZT-xBCT ceramic capacitors for energy storage applications. J Mater Sci 2013, 48: 2151–2157.
Puli VS, Pradhan DK, Riggs BC, et al. Synthesis and characterization of lead-free ternary component BST-BCT-BZT ceramic capacitors. J Adv Dielect 2014, 4: 1450014.
Puli VS, Pradhan DK, Riggs BC, et al. Structure, ferroelectric, dielectric and energy storage studies of Ba0.70Ca0.30TiO3, Ba(Zr0.20Ti0.80)O3 ceramic capacitors. Integr Ferroelectr 2014, 157: 139–146.
Puli VS, Pradhan DK, Adireddy S, et al. Effect of lead borosilicate glass addition on the crystallization, ferroelectric and dielectric energy storage properties of Ba0.9995La0.0005TiO3 ceramics. J Alloys Compd 2016, 688: 721–728.
Ogihara H, Randall CA, Trolier-Mckinstry S. High-energy density capacitors utilizing 0.7BaTiO3-0.3 BiScO3 ceramics. J Am Ceram Soc 2009, 92: 1719–1724.
Ogihara H, Randall CA, Trolier-Mckinstry S. Weakly coupled relaxor behavior of BaTiO3-BiScO3 ceramics. J Am Ceram Soc 2009, 92: 110–118.
Shen ZB, Wang XH, Luo BC, et al. BaTiO3-BiYbO3 perovskite materials for energy storage applications. J Mater Chem A 2015, 3: 18146–18153.
Wu LW, Wang XH, Li LT. Lead-free BaTiO3-Bi(Zn2/3Nb1/3)O3 weakly coupled relaxor ferroelectric materials for energy storage. RSC Adv 2016, 6: 14273–14282.
Wu LW, Wang XH, Shen ZB, et al. Ferroelectric to relaxor transition in BaTiO3-Bi(Zn2/3Nb1/3)O3 ceramics. J Am Ceram Soc 2017, 100: 265–275.
Wu LW, Wang XH, Shen ZB, et al. Re-entrant relaxor behavior in BaTiO3-Bi(Zn2/3Nb1/3)O3 ceramics. J Am Ceram Soc 2017, 100: 511–514.
Yuan QB, Yao FZ, Wang YF, et al. Relaxor ferroelectric 0.9BaTiO3-0.1Bi(Zn0.5Zr0.5)O3 ceramic capacitors with high energy density and temperature stable energy storage properties. J Mater Chem C 2017, 5: 9552–9558.
Yuan QB, Li G, Yao FZ, et al. Simultaneously achieved temperature-insensitive high energy density and efficiency in domain engineered BaTiO3-Bi(Mg0.5Zr0.5)O3 lead-free relaxor ferroelectrics. Nano Energy 2018, 52: 203–210.
Yuan QB, Yao FZ, Cheng SD, et al. Bioinspired hierarchically structured all-inorganic nanocomposites with significantly improved capacitive performance. Adv Funct Mater 2020, 30: 2000191.
Chen XL, Chen J, Ma DD, et al. Thermally stable BaTiO3-Bi(Mg2/3Nb1/3)O3 solid solution with high relative permittivity in a broad temperature usage range. J Am Ceram Soc 2015, 98: 804–810.
Wang T, Jin L, Li CC, et al. Relaxor ferroelectric BaTiO3-Bi(Mg2/3Nb1/3)O3 ceramics for energy storage application. J Am Ceram Soc 2015, 98: 559–566.
Zhou MX, Liang RH, Zhou ZY, et al. Novel BaTiO3-based lead-free ceramic capacitors featuring high energy storage density, high power density, and excellent stability. J Mater Chem C 2018, 6: 8528–8537.
Zhao PY, Wang HX, Wu LW, et al. High-performance relaxor ferroelectric materials for energy storage applications. Adv Energy Mater 2019, 9: 1803048.
Hu QY, Tian Y, Zhu QS, et al. Achieve ultrahigh energy storage performance in BaTiO3-Bi(Mg1/2Ti1/2)O3 relaxor ferroelectric ceramics via nano-scale polarization mismatch and reconstruction. Nano Energy 2020, 67: 104264.
Hu QY, Jin L, Wang T, et al. Dielectric and temperature stable energy storage properties of 0.88BaTiO-0.12Bi(Mg1/2Ti1/2)O3 bulk ceramics. J Alloys Compd 2015, 640: 416–420.
Zhao QC, Wang XH, Gong HL, et al. The properties of Al2O3 coated fine-grain temperature stable BaTiO3-based ceramics sintered in reducing atmosphere. J Am Ceram Soc 2018, 101: 1245–1254.
Zhou MX, Liang RH, Zhou ZY, et al. Combining high energy efficiency and fast charge-discharge capability in novel BaTiO3-based relaxor ferroelectric ceramic for energy-storage. Ceram Int 2019, 45: 3582–3590.
Li WB, Zhou D, Pang LX. Enhanced energy storage density by inducing defect dipoles in lead free relaxor ferroelectric BaTiO3-based ceramics. Appl Phys Lett 2017, 110: 132902.
Wei M, Zhang JH, Wu KT, et al. Effect of BiMO3 (M=Al, In, Y, Sm, Nd, and La) doping on the dielectric properties of BaTiO3 ceramics. Ceram Int 2017, 43: 9593–9599.
Li WB, Zhou D, Pang LX, et al. Novel barium titanate based capacitors with high energy density and fast discharge performance. J Mater Chem A 2017, 5: 19607–19612.
Li WB, Zhou D, Xu R, et al. BaTiO3-Bi(Li0.5Ta0.5)O3, leadfree ceramics, and multilayers with high energy storage density and efficiency. ACS Appl Energy Mater 2018, 1: 5016–5023.
Zhao XB, Zhou ZY, Liang RH, et al. High-energy storage performance in lead-free (1-x)BaTiO3-xBi(Zn0.5Ti0.5)O3 relaxor ceramics for temperature stability applications. Ceram Int 2017, 43: 9060–9066.
Li JF, Wang K, Zhu FY, et al. (K,Na)NbO3-based lead-free piezoceramics: Fundamental aspects, processing technologies, and remaining challenges. J Am Ceram Soc 2013, 96: 3677–3696.
Yang ZT, Gao F, Du HL, et al. Grain size engineered lead-free ceramics with both large energy storage density and ultrahigh mechanical properties. Nano Energy 2019, 58: 768–777.
Qu BY, Du HL, Yang ZT. Lead-free relaxor ferroelectric ceramics with high optical transparency and energy storage ability. J Mater Chem C 2016, 4: 1795–1803.
Qu BY, Du HL, Yang ZT, et al. Large recoverable energy storage density and low sintering temperature in potassium-sodium niobate-based ceramics for multilayer pulsed power capacitors. J Am Ceram Soc 2017, 100: 1517–1526.
Shao TQ, Du HL, Ma H, et al. Potassium-sodium niobate based lead-free ceramics: Novel electrical energy storage materials. J Mater Chem A 2017, 5: 554–563.
Chai QZ, Yang D, Zhao XM, et al. Lead-free (K,Na)NbO3-based ceramics with high optical transparency and large energy storage ability. J Am Ceram Soc 2018, 101: 2321–2329.
Wang XZ, Huan Y, Zhao PY, et al. Optimizing the grain size and grain boundary morphology of (K,Na)NbO3-based ceramics: Paving the way for ultrahigh energy storage capacitors. J Materiomics 2021, 7: 780–789.
Qu BY, Du HL, Yang ZT, et al. Enhanced dielectric breakdown strength and energy storage density in lead-free relaxor ferroelectric ceramics prepared using transition liquid phase sintering. RSC Adv 2016, 6: 34381–34389.
Yang ZT, Du HL, Qu SB, et al. Significantly enhanced recoverable energy storage density in potassium-sodium niobate-based lead free ceramics. J Mater Chem A 2016, 4: 13778–13785.
Chen IW, Wang XH. Sintering dense nanocrystalline ceramics without final-stage grain growth. Nature 2000, 404: 168–171.
Qi H, Xie AW, Tian A, et al. Superior energy-storage capacitors with simultaneously giant energy density and efficiency using nanodomain engineered BiFeO3-BaTiO3- NaNbO3 lead-free bulk ferroelectrics. Adv Energy Mater 2020, 10: 1903338.
Yan F, Shi YJ, Zhou XF, et al. Optimization of polarization and electric field of bismuth ferrite-based ceramics for capacitor applications. Chem Eng J 2021, 417: 127945.
Ji SS, Li QJ, Wang DD, et al. Enhanced energy storage performance and thermal stability in relaxor ferroelectric (1-x)BiFeO3-x(0.85BaTiO3-0.15Bi(Sn0.5Zn0.5)O3) ceramics. J Am Ceram Soc 2021, 104: 2646–2654.
Sun HN, Wang XJ, Sun QZ, et al. Large energy storage density in BiFeO3-BaTiO3-AgNbO3 lead-free relaxor ceramics. J Eur Ceram Soc 2020, 40: 2929–2935.
Liu G, Tang MY, Hou X, et al. Energy storage properties of bismuth ferrite based ternary relaxor ferroelectric ceramics through a viscous polymer process. Chem Eng J 2021, 412: 127555.
Zhu LF, Lei XW, Zhao L, et al. Phase structure and energy storage performance for BiFeO3-BaTiO3 based lead-free ferroelectric ceramics. Ceram Int 2019, 45: 20266–20275.
Wang DW, Fan ZM, Zhou D, et al. Bismuth ferrite-based lead-free ceramics and multilayers with high recoverable energy density. J Mater Chem A 2018, 6: 4133–4144.
Liu NT, Liang RH, Zhou ZY, et al. Designing lead-free bismuth ferrite-based ceramics learning from relaxor ferroelectric behavior for simultaneous high energy density and efficiency under low electric field. J Mater Chem C 2018, 6: 10211–10217.
Liu NT, Liang RH, Zhao XB, et al. Novel bismuth ferritebased lead-free ceramics with high energy and power density. J Am Ceram Soc 2018, 101: 3259–3265.
Li F, Zhai JW, Shen B, et al. Multifunctionality of lead-free BiFeO3-based ergodic relaxor ferroelectric ceramics: High energy storage performance and electrocaloric effect. J Alloys Compd 2019, 803: 185–192.
Yang HG, Qi H, Zuo RZ. Enhanced breakdown strength and energy storage density in a new BiFeO3-based ternary lead-free relaxor ferroelectric ceramic. J Eur Ceram Soc 2019, 39: 2673–2679.
Qiao XS, Zhang FD, Wu D, et al. Superior comprehensive energy storage properties in Bi0.5Na0.5TiO3-based relaxor ferroelectric ceramics. Chem Eng J 2020, 388: 124158.
Qi H, Zuo RZ. Linear-like lead-free relaxor antiferroelectric (Bi0.5Na0.5)TiO3-NaNbO3 with giant energy-storage density/efficiency and super stability against temperature and frequency. J Mater Chem A 2019, 7: 3971–3978.
Yan F, Huang KW, Jiang T, et al. Significantly enhanced energy storage density and efficiency of BNT-based perovskite ceramics via A-site defect engineering. Energy Storage Mater 2020, 30: 392–400.
Zhou X, Qi H, Yan Z, et al. Superior thermal stability of high energy density and power density in domain-engineered Bi0.5Na0.5TiO3-NaTaO3 relaxor ferroelectrics. ACS Appl Mater Interfaces 2019, 11: 43107–43115.
Zhu CQ, Cai ZM, Luo BC, et al. High temperature leadfree BNT-based ceramics with stable energy storage and dielectric properties. J Mater Chem A 2020, 8: 683–692.
Zhang L, Pu YP, Chen M, et al. Novel Na0.5Bi0.5TiO3 based, lead-free energy storage ceramics with high power and energy density and excellent high-temperature stability. Chem Eng J 2020, 383: 123154.
Zhang L, Pu YP, Chen M, et al. High energy-storage density under low electric fields and improved optical transparency in novel sodium bismuth titanate-based lead-free ceramics. J Eur Ceram Soc 2020, 40: 71–77.
Zhou XF, Qi H, Yan ZN, et al. Large energy density with excellent stability in fine-grained (Bi0.5Na0.5)TiO3-based lead-free ceramics. J Eur Ceram Soc 2019, 39: 4053–4059.
Qiao XS, Sheng AH, Wu D, et al. A novel multifunctional ceramic with photoluminescence and outstanding energy storage properties. Chem Eng J 2021, 408: 127368.
Hu D, Pan ZB, Zhang X, et al. Greatly enhanced discharge energy density and efficiency of novel relaxation ferroelectric BNT-BKT-based ceramics. J Mater Chem C 2020, 8: 591–601.
Wu YC, Fan YZ, Liu NT, et al. Enhanced energy storage properties in sodium bismuth titanate-based ceramics for dielectric capacitor applications. J Mater Chem C 2019, 7: 6222–6230.
Pan ZB, Hu D, Zhang Y, et al. Achieving high discharge energy density and efficiency with NBT-based ceramics for application in capacitors. J Mater Chem C 2019, 7: 4072–4078.
Kang RR, Wang ZP, Lou XJ, et al. Energy storage performance of Bi0.5Na0.5TiO3-based relaxor ferroelectric ceramics with superior temperature stability under low electric fields. Chem Eng J 2021, 410: 128376.
Zhang FD, Qiao XS, Shi QQ, et al. High energy storage density realized in Bi0.5Na0.5TiO3-based relaxor ferroelectric ceramics at ultralow sintering temperature. J Eur Ceram Soc 2021, 41: 368–375.
Zhang JT, Lin Y, Wang L, et al. Significantly enhanced energy storage density in sodium bismuth titanate-based ferroelectrics under low electric fields. J Eur Ceram Soc 2020, 40: 5458–5465.
Zhao L, Liu Q, Gao J, et al. Lead-free antiferroelectric silver niobate tantalate with high energy storage performance. Adv Mater 2017, 29: 1701824.
Gao J, Zhang YC, Zhao L, et al. Enhanced antiferroelectric phase stability in La-doped AgNbO3: Perspectives from the microstructure to energy storage properties. J Mater Chem A 2019, 7: 2225–2232.
Luo NN, Han K, Zhuo FP, et al. Aliovalent A-site engineered AgNbO3 lead-free antiferroelectric ceramics toward superior energy storage density. J Mater Chem A 2019, 7: 14118–14128.
Zhao L, Gao J, Liu Q, et al. Silver niobate lead-free antiferroelectric ceramics: Enhancing energy storage density by B-site doping. ACS Appl Mater Interfaces 2018, 10: 819–826.
Tian Y, Jin L, Zhang HF, et al. Phase transitions in bismuthmodified silver niobate ceramics for high power energy storage. J Mater Chem A 2017, 5: 17525–17531.
Li S, Nie HC, Wang GS, et al. Significantly enhanced energy storage performance of rare-earth-modified silver niobate lead-free antiferroelectric ceramics via local chemical pressure tailoring. J Mater Chem C 2019, 7: 1551–1560.
Zhou MX, Liang RH, Zhou ZY, et al. Superior energy storage properties and excellent stability of novel NaNbO3-based lead-free ceramics with A-site vacancy obtained via a Bi2O3 substitution strategy. J Mater Chem A 2018, 6: 17896–17904.
Qi H, Zuo RZ, Xie AW, et al. Ultrahigh energy-storage density in NaNbO3-based lead-free relaxor antiferroelectric ceramics with nanoscale domains. Adv Funct Mater 2019, 29: 1903877.
Zhou MX, Liang RH, Zhou ZY, et al. Novel sodium niobate-based lead-free ceramics as new environmentfriendly energy storage materials with high energy density, high power density, and excellent stability. ACS Sustainable Chem Eng 2018, 6: 12755–12765.
Shi JP, Chen XL, Li X, et al. Realizing ultrahigh recoverable energy density and superior charge-discharge performance in NaNbO3-based lead-free ceramics via a local random field strategy. J Mater Chem C 2020, 8: 3784–3794.
Yang D, Gao J, Shu L, et al. Lead-free antiferroelectric niobates AgNbO3 and NaNbO3 for energy storage applications. J Mater Chem A 2020, 8: 23724–23737.
Qi H, Zuo RZ, Xie AW, et al. Excellent energy-storage properties of NaNbO3-based lead-free antiferroelectric orthorhombic P-phase (Pbma) ceramics with repeatable double polarization-field loops. J Eur Ceram Soc 2019, 39: 3703–3709.
Wei T, Liu K, Fan PY, et al. Novel NaNbO3-Sr0.7Bi0.2TiO3 lead-free dielectric ceramics with excellent energy storage properties. Ceram Int 2021, 47: 3713–3719.
Fan YZ, Zhou ZY, Liang RH, et al. Designing novel leadfree NaNbO3-based ceramic with superior comprehensive energy storage and discharge properties for dielectric capacitor applications via relaxor strategy. J Eur Ceram Soc 2019, 39: 4770–4777.
Shi RK, Pu YP, Wang W, et al. A novel lead-free NaNbO3-Bi(Zn0.5Ti0.5)O3 ceramics system for energy storage application with excellent stability. J Alloys Compd 2020, 815: 152356.
Qu N, Du HL, Hao XH. A new strategy to realize high comprehensive energy storage properties in lead-free bulk ceramics. J Mater Chem C 2019, 7: 7993–8002.
Ye JM, Wang GS, Zhou MX, et al. Excellent comprehensive energy storage properties of novel lead-free NaNbO3-based ceramics for dielectric capacitor applications. J Mater Chem C 2019, 7: 5639–5645.
Sun CC, Chen XL, Shi JP, et al. Simultaneously with large energy density and high efficiency achieved in NaNbO3-based relaxor ferroelectric ceramics. J Eur Ceram Soc 2021, 41: 1891–1903.
Chen HY, Chen XL, Shi JP, et al. Achieving ultrahigh energy storage density in NaNbO3-Bi(Ni0.5Zr0.5)O3 solid solution by enhancing the breakdown electric field. Ceram Int 2020, 46: 28407–28413.
Pang FH, Chen XL, Sun CC, et al. Ultrahigh energy storage characteristics of sodium niobate-based ceramics by introducing a local random field. ACS Sustainable Chem Eng 2020, 8: 14985–14995.
Dong XY, Li X, Chen XL, et al. High energy storage and ultrafast discharge in NaNbO3-based lead-free dielectric capacitors via a relaxor strategy. Ceram Int 2021, 47: 3079–3088.
Tunkasiri T, Rujijanagul G. Dielectric strength of fine grained barium titanate ceramics. J Mater Sci Lett 1996, 15: 1767–1769.
Zhu CQ, Cai ZM, Guo LM, et al. Grain size engineered high-performance nanograined BaTiO3-based ceramics: Experimental and numerical prediction. J Am Ceram Soc 2021, 104: 273–283.
Cai ZM, Wang XH, Hong W, et al. Grain-size-dependent dielectric properties in nanograin ferroelectrics. J Am Ceram Soc 2018, 101: 5487–5496.
Ren XD, Jin L, Peng ZH, et al. Regulation of energy density and efficiency in transparent ceramics by grain refinement. Chem Eng J 2020, 390: 124566.
Wu LW, Cai ZM, Zhu CQ, et al. Significantly enhanced dielectric breakdown strength of ferroelectric energy-storage ceramics via grain size uniformity control: Phase-field simulation and experimental realization. Appl Phys Lett 2020, 117: 212902.
Zhang YC, Wang XH, Tian ZB, et al. Preparation of BME MLCC powders by aqueous chemical coating method. J Am Ceram Soc 2011, 94: 3286–3290.
Zhang YC, Wang XH, Kim JY, et al. High performance BaTiO3-based BME-MLCC nanopowder prepared by aqueous chemical coating method. J Am Ceram Soc 2012, 95: 1628–1633.
Zhao QC, Gong HL, Wang XH, et al. Superior reliability via two-step sintering: Barium titanate ceramics. J Am Ceram Soc 2016, 99: 191–197.
Ma R, Cui B, Shangguan MQ, et al. A novel double-coating approach to prepare fine-grained BaTiO3@La2O3@SiO2 dielectric ceramics for energy storage application. J Alloys Compd 2017, 690: 438–445.
Wang JW, Xu C, Shen B, et al. Enhancing energy storage density of (Ba,Sr)TiO3 ceramic particles by coating with Al2O3 and SiO2. J Mater Sci: Mater Electron 2013, 24: 3309–3314.
Cai ZM, Zhu CQ, Wang HX, et al. Giant dielectric breakdown strength together with ultrahigh energy density in ferroelectric bulk ceramics via layer-by-layer engineering. J Mater Chem A 2019, 7: 17283–17291.
Liu BB, Wang XH, Zhao QC, et al. Improved energy storage properties of fine-crystalline BaTiO3 ceramics by coating powders with Al2O3 and SiO2. J Am Ceram Soc 2015, 98: 2641–2646.
Yan F, Bai HR, Zhou XF, et al. Realizing superior energy storage properties in lead-free ceramics via a macrostructure design strategy. J Mater Chem A 2020, 8: 11656–11664.
Hong K, Lee TH, Suh JM, et al. Perspectives and challenges in multilayer ceramic capacitors for next generation electronics. J Mater Chem C 2019, 7: 9782–9802.
Wang YL, Li LT, Ma ZW, et al. The inner electrode structure and its optimization for high voltage chip capacitors. Journal of Functional Materials, 2003, 34: 414–417. (in Chinese)
Cai ZM, Wang XH, Luo BC, et al. Thermal-mechanicalelectrical coupled design of multilayer energy storage ceramic capacitors. Ceram Int 2017, 43: 12882–12887.
Cai ZM, Wang XH, Li LT. Phase-field modeling of electromechanical breakdown in multilayer ceramic capacitors. Adv Theory Simul 2019, 2: 1800179.
Cai ZM, Wang HX, Zhao PY, et al. Significantly enhanced dielectric breakdown strength and energy density of multilayer ceramic capacitors with high efficiency by electrodes structure design. Appl Phys Lett 2019, 115: 023901.
Cai ZM, Wang XH, Luo BC, et al. Multiscale design of high-voltage multilayer energy-storage ceramic capacitors. J Am Ceram Soc 2018, 101: 1607–1615.
Jiang WG, Feng XQ, Nan CW. Influence of residual thermal stresses and geometric parameters on stress and electric fields in multilayer ceramic capacitors under electric bias. J Phys D: Appl Phys 2008, 41: 135310.
Park JW, Chae JH, Park IH, et al. Thermo-mechanical stresses and mechanical reliability of multilayer ceramic capacitors (MLCC). J Am Ceram Soc 2007, 90: 2151–2158.
Chen KY, Huang CW, Wu M, et al. Control of stress concentration in surface-mounted multilayer ceramic capacitor subjected to bending. J Am Ceram Soc 2014, 97: 1170–1176.
Huang CW, Chen BT, Chen KY, et al. Finite element analysis and design of thermal-mechanical stresses in multilayer ceramic capacitors. Int J Appl Ceram Technol 2015, 12: 451–460.
Franken K, Maier HR, Prume K, et al. Finite-element analysis of ceramic multilayer capacitors: Failure probability caused by wave soldering and bending loads. J Am Ceram Soc 2000, 83: 1433–1440.
Shay DP, Podraza NJ, Donnelly NJ, et al. High energy density, high temperature capacitors utilizing Mn-doped 0.8CaTiO3-0.2CaHfO3 ceramics. J Am Ceram Soc 2012, 95: 1348–1355.
Kumar N, Ionin A, Ansell T, et al. Multilayer ceramic capacitors based on relaxor BaTiO3-Bi(Zn1/2Ti1/2)O3 for temperature stable and high energy density capacitor applications. Appl Phys Lett 2015, 106: 252901.
Li WB, Zhou D, Xu R, et al. BaTiO3-based multilayers with outstanding energy storage performance for high temperature capacitor applications. ACS Appl Energy Mater 2019, 2: 5499–5506.
Yang HJ, Bao WC, Lu ZL, et al. High-energy storage performance in BaTiO3-based lead-free multilayer ceramic capacitors. J Mater Res 2021, 36: 1285–1294.
Chen LL, Wang HX, Zhao PY, et al. Multifunctional BaTiO3-(Bi0.5Na0.5)TiO3-based MLCC with high-energy storage properties and temperature stability. J Am Ceram Soc 2019, 102: 4178–4187.
Zhao PY, Cai ZM, Chen LL, et al. Ultra-high energy storage performance in lead-free multilayer ceramic capacitors via a multiscale optimization strategy. Energy Environ Sci 2020, 13: 4882–4890.
Wu LW, Wang XH, Li LT. Enhanced energy density in core-shell ferroelectric ceramics: Modeling and practical conclusions. J Am Ceram Soc 2016, 99: 930–937.
Li JL, Li F, Xu Z, et al. Multilayer lead-free ceramic capacitors with ultrahigh energy density and efficiency. Adv Mater 2018, 30: 1802155.
Zhu LF, Zhao L, Yan YK, et al. Composition and strain engineered AgNbO3-based multilayer capacitors for ultrahigh energy storage capacity. J Mater Chem A 2021, 9: 9655–9664.
Lu ZL, Wang G, Bao WC, et al. Superior energy density through tailored dopant strategies in multilayer ceramic capacitors. Energy Environ Sci 2020, 13: 2938–2948.
Wang DW, Fan ZM, Zhou D, et al. Bismuth ferrite-based lead-free ceramics and multilayers with high recoverable energy density. J Mater Chem A 2018, 6: 4133–4144.
Wang G, Li JL, Zhang X, et al. Ultrahigh energy storage density lead-free multilayers by controlled electrical homogeneity. Energy Environ Sci 2019, 12: 582–588.
Wang G, Lu ZL, Li JL, et al. Lead-free (Ba,Sr)TiO3-BiFeO3 based multilayer ceramic capacitors with high energy density. J Eur Ceram Soc 2020, 40: 1779–1783.
Wang G, Lu ZL, Yang HJ, et al. Fatigue resistant lead-free multilayer ceramic capacitors with ultrahigh energy density. J Mater Chem A 2020, 8: 11414–11423.
Li JL, Shen ZH, Chen XH, et al. Grain-orientation-engineered multilayer ceramic capacitors for energy storage applications. Nat Mater 2020, 19: 999–1005.
Ji HF, Wang DW, Bao WC, et al. Ultrahigh energy density in short-range tilted NBT-based lead-free multilayer ceramic capacitors by nanodomain percolation. Energy Storage Mater 2021, 38: 113–120.
Yang HJ, Lu ZL, Li LH, et al. Novel BaTiO3-based, Ag/Pdcompatible lead-free relaxors with superior energy storage performance. ACS Appl Mater Interfaces 2020, 12: 43942–43949.
Cen ZY, Wang XH, Huan Y, et al. Temperature stability and electrical properties of MnO-doped KNN-based ceramics sintered in reducing atmosphere. J Am Ceram Soc 2018, 101: 2391–2407.
Wang HX, Zhao PY, Chen LL, et al. Energy storage properties of 0.87BaTiO3-0.13Bi(Zn2/3(Nb0.85Ta0.15)1/3)O3 multilayer ceramic capacitors with thin dielectric layers. J Adv Ceram 2020, 9: 292–302.
Cai ZM, Zhu CQ, Wang HX, et al. High-temperature leadfree multilayer ceramic capacitors with ultrahigh energy density and efficiency fabricated via two-step sintering. J Mater Chem A 2019, 7: 14575–14582.
Zhu LF, Yan YK, Leng HY, et al. Energy-storage performance of NaNbO3 based multilayered capacitors. J Mater Chem C 2021, 9: 7950–7957.
Correia T, Stewart M, Ellmore A, et al. Lead-free ceramics with high energy density and reduced losses for high temperature applications. Adv Eng Mater 2017, 19: 1700019.
Pan MJ, Randall CA. A brief introduction to ceramic capacitors. IEEE Electr Insul Mag 2010, 26: 44–50.
Knowles Capacitors. Detonator and pulse energy capacitors. Information on https://www.knowlescapacitors.com/getattachment/b89f4aaf-ff9c-4a59-9a4a-0ec1017edac6/Detonation-pulse-Energy.
Wang H, Blaabjerg F. Reliability of capacitors for DC-link applications—An overview. In: Proceedings of the IEEE Energy Conversion Congress and Exposition, 2013, 1866–1873.
Falck J, Felgemacher C, Rojko A, et al. Reliability of power electronic systems: An industry perspective. IEEE Ind Electron Mag 2018, 12: 24–35.
López I, Ibarra E, Matallana A, et al. Next generation electric drives for HEV/EV propulsion systems: Technology, trends and challenges. Renew Sustain Energy Rev 2019, 114: 109336.
Hobbs, D. Are you ready to service hybrids that are outside of their warranty period? Information on https://www.vehicleservicepros.com/service-repair/battery-and-electrical/article/21199811/are-you-ready-to-service-hybrids-thatare-outside-of-their-warranty-period.
Zhu, Y. The inverter of Model 3. Information on https://www.eefocus.com/automobile-electronics/418864.
Wen H, Xiao W, Wen XH. Comparative evaluation of DC-link capacitors for electric vehicle application. In: Proceedings of the IEEE International Symposium on Industrial Electronics, 2012, 1472–1477.
KEMET. DC link solutions for SiC and GaN applications. Information on https://ec.kemet.com/event/dc-link-solutionsfor-sic-and-gan-applications.
KEMET. KC-LINK for fast switching semicondutor applications. Information on https://ec.kemet.com/kc-link.
TDK. Ceralink capacitors. Information on https://product.tdk.com/en/products/capacitor/ceramic/ceralink/index.html.
Fraunhofer. 200 kW full-SiC DC/DC converter. Information on https://www.iisb.fraunhofer.de/de/research_areas/vehicle_electronics/dcdc_converters/projects/200_kw_full_sic_dcdc_converter.html.
TDK. TDK CeraLink high ripple current capacitors for power electronics. Information on https://passive-components.eu/tdk-ceralink-high-ripple-current-capacitors-for-power-electronics.
This work was supported by National Key R&D Program of China (No. 2017YFB0406302), Key-Area Research and Development Program of Guangdong Province (No. 2019B090912003), the National Natural Science Foundation of China (No. 52002253), Sichuan Science and Technology Program (No. 2021YFH0181), Shuimu Tsinghua Scholar Program, and State Key Laboratory of New Ceramic and Fine Processing Tsinghua University (No. KFZD202002).
About this article
Cite this article
Zhao, P., Cai, Z., Wu, L. et al. Perspectives and challenges for lead-free energy-storage multilayer ceramic capacitors. J Adv Ceram 10, 1153–1193 (2021). https://doi.org/10.1007/s40145-021-0516-8
- multilayer ceramic capacitors (MLCCs)
- lead-free dielectric ceramics
- energy storage
- high power density