Photopolymerization-based additive manufacturing of ceramics: A systematic review


Conversion of inorganic-organic frameworks (ceramic precursors and ceramic-polymer mixtures) into solid mass ceramic structures based on photopolymerization process is currently receiving plentiful attention in the field of additive manufacturing (3D printing). Various techniques (e.g., stereolithography, digital light processing, and two-photon polymerization) that are compatible with this strategy have so far been widely investigated. This is due to their cost-viability, flexibility, and ability to design and manufacture complex geometric structures. Different platforms related to these techniques have been developed too, in order to meet up with modern technology demand. Most relevant to this review are the challenges faced by the researchers in using these 3D printing techniques for the fabrication of ceramic structures. These challenges often range from shape shrinkage, mass loss, poor densification, cracking, weak mechanical performance to undesirable surface roughness of the final ceramic structures. This is due to the brittle nature of ceramic materials. Based on the summary and discussion on the current progress of material-technique correlation available, here we show the significance of material composition and printing processes in addressing these challenges. The use of appropriate solid loading, solvent, and preceramic polymers in forming slurries is suggested as steps in the right direction. Techniques are indicated as another factor playing vital roles and their selection and development are suggested as plausible ways to remove these barriers.


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This work is supported by Key Project Fund for Science and Technology Development of Guangdong Province (2020B090924003), National Natural Science Foundation of China (51975384), Guangdong Basic and Applied Basic Research Foundation (2020A1515011547), and Shenzhen Fundamental Research Project (JCYJ-20190808144009478, WDZC2021023519389248).

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Rasaki, S.A., Xiong, D., Xiong, S. et al. Photopolymerization-based additive manufacturing of ceramics: A systematic review. J Adv Ceram (2021).

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  • ceramics
  • photopolymerization
  • stereolithography
  • additive manufacturing
  • 3D printing
  • polymer-derived ceramics