Tunnel elasticity enhancement effect of 3D submicron ceramics (Al2O3, TiO2, ZrO2) fiber on polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS)


Some polymers are flexible, foldable, and wearable. Structural—functional composite is fabricated by adding inorganic fillers with functional properties. Up to date, compared with the polymer matrix, the composite prepared by polymer-inorganic fillers has lower flexibility, higher brittleness, and higher modulus of elasticity. In this paper, three-dimensional (3D) net-shaped submicron α-Al2O3, orthorhombic ZrO2, and rutile TiO2 fiber were fabricated by solution blowing spinning on a large scale. On the contrary, the elastic modulus (E) of the composite prepared by this 3D ceramic fiber was greatly reduced, and the flexibility of the composite was higher than that of the polymer matrix. When the strain was 75%, the E of the 3D net-shaped Al2O3 fiber-polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) composite was 20% lower than that of PDMS. When the strain was 78%, the E of the 3D net-shaped TiO2 fiber-PDMS and 3D net-shaped ZrO2 fiber-PDMS composites decreased by 20% and 25%, respectively. This abnormal effect, namely the tunnel elastic enhancement effect, has great practical significance. In all-solid-state lithium-ion batteries, the composite inhibits lithium dendrite growth and the 3D inorganic network contributes to lithium ion transport. It is possible to promote the industrial production of low-cost and large-scale flexible solid-state lithium-ion batteries and it can enhance the energy storage density of energy storage materials. This novel idea also has bright prospects in flexible electronic materials.


  1. [1]

    Fu KK, Gong Y, Dai J, et al. Flexible, solid-state, ionconducting membrane with 3D garnet nanofiber networks for lithium batteries. PNAS 2016, 113: 7094–7099.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  2. [2]

    Chen X, Huang HJ, Pan L, et al. Fully integrated design of a stretchable solid-state lithium-ion full battery. Adv Mater 2019, 31: 1904648.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  3. [3]

    Kim SH, Choi KH, Cho SJ, et al. Flexible/shape-versatile, bipolar all-solid-state lithium-ion batteries prepared by multistage printing. Energy Environ Sci 2018, 11: 321–330.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  4. [4]

    Wang H, Zhang X, Wang N, et al. Ultralight, scalable, and high-temperature-resilient ceramic nanofiber sponges. Sci Adv 2017, 3: e1603170.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  5. [5]

    Xu J, Wang S, Wang GN, et al. Highly stretchable polymer semiconductor films through the nanoconfinement effect. Science 2017, 355: 59–64.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  6. [6]

    Wang S, Xu J, Wang W, et al. Skin electronics from scalable fabrication of an intrinsically stretchable transistor array. Nature 2018, 555: 83–88.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  7. [7]

    Minev IR, Musienko P, Hirsch A, et al. Electronic dura mater for long-term multimodal neural interfaces. Science 2015, 347: 159–163.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  8. [8]

    Yu KJ, Kuzum D, Hwang SW, et al. Bioresorbable silicon electronics for transient spatiotemporal mapping of electrical activity from the cerebral cortex. Nat Mater 2016, 15: 782–791.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  9. [9]

    Li TF, Li GR, Liang YM, et al. Fast-moving soft electronic fish. Sci Adv 2017, 3: e1602045.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  10. [10]

    Huang SY, Liu Y, Zhao Y, et al. Flexible electronics: Stretchable electrodes and their future. Adv Funct Mater 2019, 29: 1805924.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  11. [11]

    Bolink HJ, Coronado E, Orozco J, et al. Efficient polymer light-emitting diode using air-stable metal oxides as electrodes. Adv Mater 2009, 21: 79–82.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  12. [12]

    Levermore P, Chen L, Wang X, et al. Fabrication of highly conductive poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) films by vapor phase polymerization and their application in efficient organic light-emitting diodes. Adv Mater 2007, 19: 2379–2385.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  13. [13]

    Sellinger AT, Wang DH, Tan LS, et al. Electrothermal polymer nanocomposite actuators. Adv Mater 2010, 22: 3430–3435.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  14. [14]

    Chen MT, Zhang L, Duan SS, et al. Highly stretchable conductors integrated with a conductive carbon nanotube/ graphene network and 3D porous poly(dimethylsiloxane). Adv Funct Mater 2014, 24: 7548–7556.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  15. [15]

    Park J, Wang S, Li M, et al. Three-dimensional nanonetworks for giant stretchability in dielectrics and conductors. Nat Commun 2012, 3: 916.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  16. [16]

    Guo CF, Sun TY, Liu QH, et al. Highly stretchable and transparent nanomesh electrodes made by grain boundary lithography. Nat Commun 2014, 5: 3121.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  17. [17]

    Huang SY, Liu Y, Guo CF, et al. A highly stretchable and fatigue-free transparent electrode based on an in-plane buckled Au nanotrough network. Adv Electron Mater 2017, 3: 1600534.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  18. [18]

    Song E, Kang B, Choi HH, et al. Stretchable and transparent organic semiconducting thin film with conjugated polymer nanowires embedded in an elastomeric matrix. Adv Electron Mater 2016, 2: 1500250.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  19. [19]

    Rao YL, Chortos A, Pfattner R, et al. Stretchable self-healing polymeric dielectrics cross-linked through metal-ligand coordination. J Am Chem Soc 2016, 138: 6020–6027.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  20. [20]

    Li CH, Wang C, Keplinger C, et al. A highly stretchable autonomous self-healing elastomer. Nat Chem 2016, 8: 618–624.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  21. [21]

    Li L, Kang WM, Zhao YX, et al. Preparation of flexible ultra-fine Al2O3 fiber mats via the solution blowing method. Ceram Int 2015, 41: 409–415.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  22. [22]

    Stojanovska E, Canbay E, Pampal ES, et al. A review on non-electro nanofibre spinning techniques. RSC Adv 2016, 6: 83783–83801.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  23. [23]

    Lipp ED, Smith AL. Analysis of Silicone. New York, USA: John Wiley and Sons, 1991.

    Google Scholar 

Download references


This work was supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 51625202).

Author information



Corresponding author

Correspondence to Yang Shen.

Electronic supplementary material

Rights and permissions

Open Access This article is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License, which permits use, sharing, adaptation, distribution and reproduction in any medium or format, as long as you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons licence, and indicate if changes were made.

The images or other third party material in this article are included in the article’s Creative Commons licence, unless indicated otherwise in a credit line to the material. If material is not included in the article’s Creative Commons licence and your intended use is not permitted by statutory regulation or exceeds the permitted use, you will need to obtain permission directly from the copyright holder.

To view a copy of this licence, visit http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/.

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Hao, Y., Xie, J., Xu, B. et al. Tunnel elasticity enhancement effect of 3D submicron ceramics (Al2O3, TiO2, ZrO2) fiber on polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS). J Adv Ceram 10, 502–508 (2021). https://doi.org/10.1007/s40145-020-0452-z

Download citation


  • ceramic fiber
  • tunnel elasticity enhancement effect
  • solution blowing spinning