Journal of Advanced Ceramics

, Volume 5, Issue 4, pp 269–276 | Cite as

Thermally stable polymer–ceramic composites for microwave antenna applications

  • Li Zhang
  • Jie Zhang
  • Zhenxing Yue
  • Longtu Li
Open Access
Research Article


Polymer–ceramic composites were prepared by twin screw melt extrusion with high-density polyethylene (HDPE) as the matrix and polystyrene-coated BaO–Nd2O3–TiO2 (BNT) ceramics as the filling material. Interestingly, the incorporation of polystyrene (PS) by the coating route could significantly improve the thermal behaviors of the composites (HDPE–PS/BNT), besides the temperature stability of dielectric properties and thermal displacement. The microwave dielectric properties of the composites were investigated systematically. The results indicated that, as the volume fraction of BNT ceramic particles increased from 10 to 50 vol% in the composites, the dielectric constant increased from 3.54 (9.23 GHz) to 13.14 (7.20 GHz), which can be beneficial for the miniaturization of microwave devices; the dielectric loss tangent was relatively low (0.0003–0.0012); more importantly, the ratio of PS to HDPE increased accordingly, making the composite containing 50 vol% BNT ceramics have a low value of temperature coefficient of resonant frequency (τ f = −11.2 ppm/°C) from −20 to 60 °C. The GPS microstrip antennas were therefore designed and prepared from the HDPE–PS/BNT composites. They possessed good thermal stability (τ f = 23.6 ppm/°C) over a temperature range of −20 to 60 °C, promising to meet the requirements of practical antenna applications.


polymer–ceramic composites microwave dielectric properties thermal stability GPS antenna 



This work is supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 51472138 and 51221291), the Ministry of Science and Technology of China through 973 Program under Grant No. 2015CB654605, and Tsinghua National Laboratory for Information Science and Technology (TNList) Cross-discipline Foundation


  1. [1]
    George S, Anjana PS, Sebastian MT, et al. Dielectric, mechanical, and thermal properties of low-permittivity polymer–ceramic composites for microelectronic applications. Int J Appl Ceram Tec 2010, 7: 461–474.Google Scholar
  2. [2]
    Rajesh S, Murali KP, Ratheesh R. Preparation and characterization of high permittivity and low loss PTFE/ CaTiO3 microwave laminates. Polym Composite 2009, 30: 1480–1485.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. [3]
    Ohsato H, Ohhashi T, Kato H, et al. Microwave dielectric properties and structure of the Ba6-3xSm8+2xTi18O54 solid solutions. Jpn J Appl Phys 1995, 34: 187–191.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. [4]
    Huang C-L, Wang J-J, Huang C-Y. Microwave dielectric properties of sintered alumina using nano-scaled powders of ? alumina and TiO2. J Am Ceram Soc 2007, 90: 1487–1493.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. [5]
    Subodh G, Joseph M, Mohanan P, et al. Low dielectric loss polytetrafluoroethylene/TeO2 polymer ceramic composites. J Am Ceram Soc 2007, 90: 3507–3511.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. [6]
    James NK, Jacob KS, Murali KP, et al. Ba(Mg1/3Ta2/3)O3 filled PTFE composites for microwave substrate applications. Mater Chem Phys 2010, 122: 507–511.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. [7]
    Thomas S, Deepu VN, Mohanan P, et al. Effect of filler content on the dielectric properties of PTFE/ZnAl2O4–TiO2 composites. J Am Ceram Soc 2008, 91: 1971–1975.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. [8]
    Subodh G, Deepu V, Mohanan P, et al. Polystyrene/ Sr2Ce2Ti5O15 composites with low dielectric loss for microwave substrate applications. Polym Eng Sci 2009, 49: 1218–1224.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. [9]
    Sebastian MT, Jantunen H. Polymer–ceramic composites of 0–3 connectivity for circuits in electronics: A review. Int J Appl Ceram Tec 2010, 7: 415–434.Google Scholar
  10. [10]
    Zhang L, Yue Z, Li L. Low dielectric loss polymer–ceramic composites for wireless temperature sensation. Key Engineering Materials 2014, 602–603: 752–756.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. [11]
    Jacob KS, Satheesh R, Ratheesh R. Preparation and microwave characterization of BaNd2-xSmxTi4O12 (0 = x = 2) ceramics and their effect on the temperature coefficient of dielectric constant in polytetrafluoroethylene composites. Mater Res Bull 2009, 44: 2022–2026.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. [12]
    Wu YJ, Chen XM. Structures and microwave dielectric properties of Ba6-3x(Nd,Biy)8+2xTi18O54 (x = 2/3) solid solution. J Mater Res 2001, 16: 1734–1738.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. [13]
    Okawa T, Imaeda M, Ohsato H. Microwave dielectric properties of Bi-added Ba4Nd9+1/3Ti18O54 solid solutions. Jpn J Appl Phys 2000, 39: 5645–5649.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. [14]
    Thomas S, Deepub V, Uma S, et al. Preparation, characterization and properties of Sm2Si2O7 loaded polymer composites for microelectronic applications. Mat Sci Eng B 2009, 163: 67–75.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. [15]
    Subodh G, Deepu V, Mohanan P, et al. Dielectric response of high permittivity polymer ceramic composite with low loss tangent. Appl Phys Lett 2009, 95: 062903.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. [16]
    Wu C-C, Yang C-F, Chen Y-C, et al. Fabrication of circular polarization antenna on PEI/BSTZ composite substrate for the application of UHF-RFID reader. J Electrochem Soc 2009, 156: G197–G200.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. [17]
    Hao HG, Lu HX, Chen W, et al. A novel miniature microstrip antenna for GPS applications. In Informatics in Control, Automation and Robotics. Yang D, Ed. Springer Berlin Heidelberg, 2011: 139–147.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© The Author(s) 2016

Open Access The articles published in this journal are distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made.

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.State Key Laboratory of New Ceramics and Fine Processing, School of Materials Science and EngineeringTsinghua UniversityBeijingChina

Personalised recommendations