Skip to main content

Effect of Li+ ion mobility on the grain boundary conductivity of Li2TiO3 nanoceramics

Abstract

Lithium titanate (Li2TiO3) is one of the most promising candidates among the tritium breeding materials because of its good tritium release capacity. Li concentration has much significance on the diffusivity of tritium in the material. The nanocrystalline single-phase Li2TiO3 with monoclinic structure has been prepared by high energy ball milling followed by calcination at 700 °C for 2 h. The field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) studies confirmed uniform distribution of nanocrystalline phase with particle size below 100 nm. The study of the Li+ ion diffusion on the sintered sample was investigated by means of electrical conductivity measurements. Electrical properties of the samples were studied in wide temperature (50–500 °C) and frequency (100 Hz-1 MHz) ranges. The complex impedance spectroscopy (CIS) studies showed the presence of both bulk and grain boundary effects in nanocrystalline Li2TiO3. The bulk resistance of the samples has been observed to decrease with rise in temperature showing a typical negative temperature coefficient of resistance (NTCR) behavior. The low activation energies of the samples suggested the presence of singly ionized oxygen vacancies in the conduction process. The hopping frequency shifted toward higher frequency with increase in temperature. Activation energy of 0.86 eV was calculated from AC conductivity.

References

  1. Alvani C, Casadio S, Contini V, et al. Li2TiO3 pebbles reprocessing, recovery of 6Li as Li2CO3. J Nucl Mater 2002, 307–311: 837–841.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  2. Kopasz JP, Miller JM, Johnson CE. Tritium release from lithium titanate, a low-activation tritium breeding material. J Nucl Mater 1994, 212–215: 927–931.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  3. Roux N, Avon J, Floreancing A, et al. Lowtemperature tritium releasing ceramics as potential materials for the ITER breeding blanket. J Nucl Mater 1996, 233–237:1431–1435.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  4. Dienst W, Zimmermann H. Investigation of the mechanical properties of ceramic breeder materials. J Nucl Mater 1988, 155–157: 476–479.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  5. Rasneur B, Charpin J. Chemical properties of lithium ceramics: Reactivity with water and water vapour. J Nucl Mater 1988, 155–157: 461–465.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  6. Hofmann P, Dienst W. Compatibility studies of metallic materials with lithium-based oxides. J Nucl Mater 1988, 155–157: 485–490.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  7. Noda K, Ishii Y, Matsui H, et al. A study of tritium behavior in lithium oxide by ion conductivity measurements. Fusion Eng Des 1989, 8: 329–333.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  8. Roux N, Tanaka S, Johnson C, et al. Ceramic breeder material development. Fusion Eng Des 1998, 41: 31–38.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  9. Gierszewski P. Review of properties of lithium metatitanate. Fusion Eng Des 1998, 39–40: 739–743.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  10. Hegeman JBJ, van Essen EDL, Jong M, et al. Thermomechanical behaviour of ceramic breeder pebble stacks for HICU. Fusion Eng Des 2003, 69: 425–429.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  11. Tsuchiya K, Kawamura H, Takayama T, et al. Control of particle size and density of Li2TiO3 pebbles fabricated by indirect wet processes. J Nucl Mater 2005, 345: 239–244.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  12. Fehr Th, Schmidbauer E. Electrical conductivity of Li2TiO3 ceramics. Solid State Ionics 2007, 178: 35–41.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  13. Kinjyo T, Nishikawa M, Enoeda M, et al. Tritium diffusivity in crystal grain of Li2TiO3 and tritium release behavior under several purge gas conditions. Fusion Eng Des 2008, 83: 580–587.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  14. Wu X, Wen Z, Xu X, et al. Fabrication and improvement of the density of Li2TiO3 pebbles by the optimization of a sol-gel method. J Nucl Mater 2009, 393: 186–191.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  15. Sinha A, Nair SR, Sinha PK. Single step synthesis of Li2TiO3 powder. J Nucl Mater 2010 399: 162–166.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  16. Vittal Rao TV, Bamankar YR, Mukerjee SK, et al. Preparation and characterization of Li2TiO3 pebbles by internal gelation sol-gel process. J Nucl Mater 2012, 426: 102–108.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  17. Ohno H, Konishi S, Nagasaki T, et al. Correlation behavior of lithium and tritium in some solid breeder materials. J Nucl Mater 1985, 133–134: 181–185.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  18. Deptuła A, Łada W, Olczak T, et al. Preparation of lithium titanate by sol-gel method. Nukleonika 2001, 46: 95–100.

    Google Scholar 

  19. Tsuchiya K, Kawamura H, Fuchinoue K, et al. Fabrication development and preliminary characterization of Li2TiO3 pebbles by wet process. J Nucl Mater 1998, 258–263: 1985–1990.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  20. Jung C-H. Sintering characterization of Li2TiO3 ceramic breeder powders prepared by the solution combustion synthesis process. J Nucl Mater 2005, 341: 148–152.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  21. Lulewicz JD, Roux N. Fabrication of Li2TiO3 pebbles by the extrusion-spheronisation-sintering process. J Nucl Mater 2002, 307–311: 803–806.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  22. Mandal D, Sathiyamoorthy D, Vinjamur M. Experimental measurement of effective thermal conductivity of packed lithium-titanate pebble bed. Fusion Eng Des 2012, 87: 67–76.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  23. Sinclair DC, West AR. Impedance and modulus spectroscopy of semiconducting BaTiO3 showing positive temperature coefficient of resistance. J Appl Phys 1989, 66: 3850.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  24. Lanfredi S, Rodrigues ACM. Impedance spectroscopy study of the electrical conductivity and dielectric constant of polycrystalline LiNbO3. J Appl Phys 1999, 86: 2215.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  25. Barsoukov E, Macdonald JR. Impedance Spectroscopy: Theory, Experiment, and Applications, 2nd, edn. New York: John Wiley & Sons, 2005.

    Book  Google Scholar 

  26. Wang CC, Wang C, Zeng R, et al. Intergrain connectivity of MgB2 ceramics studied by impedance analysis. J Appl Phys 2010, 108: 023901.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  27. Argall F, Jonscher AK. Dielectric properties of thin films of aluminium oxide and silicon oxide. Thin Solid Films 1968, 2: 185–210.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  28. Vītiņš G, Ķizāne G, Lūsis A, et al. Electrical conductivity studies in the system Li2TiO3-Li1.33Ti1.67O4. J Solid State Electr 2002, 6: 311–319.

    Article  Google Scholar 

Download references

Author information

Affiliations

Authors

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Umasankar Dash.

Additional information

This article is published with open access at Springerlink.com

Rights and permissions

Open Access This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0), which permits use, duplication, adaptation, distribution, and reproduction in any medium or format, as long as you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made.

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Dash, U., Sahoo, S., Parashar, S.K.S. et al. Effect of Li+ ion mobility on the grain boundary conductivity of Li2TiO3 nanoceramics. J Adv Ceram 3, 98–108 (2014). https://doi.org/10.1007/s40145-014-0098-9

Download citation

  • Received:

  • Revised:

  • Accepted:

  • Published:

  • Issue Date:

  • DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s40145-014-0098-9

Keywords

  • high energy ball milling
  • AC conductivity
  • impedance spectroscopy
  • nanocrystalline