Journal of Advanced Ceramics

, Volume 1, Issue 1, pp 60–65 | Cite as

Preparation of hydroxyapatite ceramic through centrifugal casting process using ultra-fine spherical particles as precursor and its decomposition at high temperatures

  • Yanjie Zhang
  • Jinjun LuEmail author
  • Shengrong Yang
Open Access
Research Article


Ultra-fine hydroxyapatite (HAp) powder with a diameter of about 10 nm was used as precursor for preparation of HAp ceramic. The precursor hydroxyapatite was single phase and highly crystallized without any additional thermal treatment. Highly densified HAp ceramic was fabricated through centrifugal infiltration casting (CIC), followed by pressureless sintering. The relative densities of compacts prepared at 1100°C and 1200°C were 77.8% and 94.1%, respectively. SEM micrographs of HAp ceramic sintered at 1100°C showed a porous microstructure with a grain size of 1 μm. HAp ceramic fabricated at 1200°C revealed a dense microstructure with nano-sized spherical α-TCP distributed at grain boundaries and triple points. The mechanism of decomposition from HAp to α-TCP at 1200°C was discussed on the basis of SEM, XRD and FTIR results.

Key words

hydroxyapatite bioceramics Centrifugal Infiltration Casting pressureless sintering 


  1. [1]
    Afshar A, Ghorbani M, Ehsani N, et al. Some important factors in the wet precipitation process of hydroxyapatite. Mater design 2003, 24: 197–202.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. [2]
    Riman RE, Suchaned WL, Byrappa K, et al. Solution synthesis of hydroxyapatite designer particulates. Solid State Ionics 2002, 151: 393–402.Google Scholar
  3. [3]
    Ahn ES, Gleason NJ, Nakahira A, et al. Nanostructure processing of hydroxyapatite-based bioceramics. Nano Lett 2001, 1: 149–153.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. [4]
    Rodriguez-Lorenzo LM, Vallet-Regi M, Ferreira JMF. Fabrication of hydroxyapatite bodies by uniaxial pressing from a precipitated powder. Biomater 2001, 22: 583–588.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. [5]
    Han YC, Li SP, Wang XY, et al. Synthesis and sintering of nanocrystalline hydroxyapatite powders by citric acid sol-gel combustion method. Mater Res Bull 2004, 39: 25–32.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. [6]
    Kumar R, Prakash KH, Cheang P, et al. Temperature driven morphological changes of chemically precipitated hydroxyapatite nanoparticles. Langm 2004, 20: 5196–5200.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. [7]
    Kim HW, Koh YH, Li LH, et al. Hydroxyapatite coating on titanium substrate with titania buffer layer processed by sol-gel method. Biomat 2004, 25: 2533–2538.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. [8]
    Liu HS, Chin TS, Lai LS, et al. Hydroxyapatite synthesized by a simplified hydrothermal method. Ceram Int 1997, 23: 19–25.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. [9]
    Ioku K, Yamauchi S, Fujimori H, et al. Hydrothermal preparation of fibrous apatite and apatite sheet. Solid State Ion 2002, 151: 147–150.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. [10]
    Liu DM, Yang QZ, Troczynski T. Water-based sol-gel synthesis of hydroxyapatite: process development. Biomat 2002, 23: 691–698.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. [11]
    Kim TS, Kumta PN. Sol-gel synthesis and characterization of nanostructured hydroxyapatite powder. Mater Sci Eng B 2004, 111: 232–236.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. [12]
    Yeong KCB, Wang J, Ng SC. Mechanochemical synthesis of nanocrystalline hydroxyapatite from CaO and CaHPO4. Biomat 2001, 22: 2705–2712.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. [13]
    Mochales C, Briak-Benabdeslam HE, Ginebra MP, et al. Dry mechanochemical synthesis of hydroxyapatites from DCPD and CaO: Influence of instrumental parameters on the reaction kinetics. Biomat 2004, 25: 1151–1158.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. [14]
    Rao PG, Iwasa M, Tanaka T, et al. Centrifugal casting of Al2O3-15wt.%ZrO2 ceramic composites. Ceram inter 2003, 29: 209–212.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. [15]
    Gao GW, Wang CY. Modeling the solidification of functionally graded materials by centrifugal casting. Mater Sci Eng A 2000, 292: 207–215.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. [16]
    Rapacz-Kmita A, Paluszkiewicz C, Ślósarczyk A, et al. FTIR and XRD investigations on the thermal stability of hydroxyapatite during hot pressing and pressureless sintering processes. J Mol Struct 2005, 744–747: 653–656.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. [17]
    Ooi CY, Hamdi M, Ramesh S. Properties of hydroxyapatite produced by annealing of bovine bone. Ceram Inter 2007, 33: 1171–1177.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. [18]
    He ZM, Ma J, Wang C. Constitutive modeling of the densification and the grain growth of hydroxyapatite ceramics. Biomater 2005, 26: 1613–1621.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. [19]
    Carmona P, Garcia-Ramos JV. Polarizable proton-transfer hydrogen bonds between phosphate and organic acids. J Chem Soc Farad Trans 2 1985, 81: 929–935.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. [20]
    Gonzalez-McQuire R, Chane-Ching JY, Vignaud E, et al. Synthesis and characterization of amino acid-functionalized hydroxyapatite nanorods. J Mater Chem 2004, 14: 2277–2281.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. [21]
    Liao CJ, Lin FH, Chen KS, et al. Thermal decomposition and reconstitution of hydroxyapatite in air atmosphere. Biomater 1999, 20: 1807–1813.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. [22]
    Muralithran G, Ramesh S. The effects of sintering temperature on the properties of hydroxyapatite. Ceram Inter 2000, 26: 221–230.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© The Author(s) 2012

This article is published under license to BioMed Central Ltd. Open Access This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits any use, distribution and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author(s) and source are credited.

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.State Key Laboratory of Solid Lubrication, Lanzhou Institute of Chemical PhysicsChinese Academy of SciencesLanzhouChina
  2. 2.Graduate School of the Chinese Academy of SciencesBeijingChina

Personalised recommendations