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(K, Na)NbO3-based lead-free piezoceramics: Phase transition, sintering and property enhancement

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Abstract

Most widely used piezoelectric ceramics are based on Pb(Zr,Ti)O3 (PZT) composition which has adverse environmental and health effects due to its high lead content. Environmental and safety concerns with respect to the utilization, recycling, and disposal of lead-based piezoelectric ceramics have induced a new surge in developing lead-free piezoelectric ceramics. Among all the lead-free ceramics, (K,Na)NbO3 (KNN) has drawn increasing attention because of its well-balanced piezoelectric properties and better environmental compatibility. On basis of the author’s work, this review summarizes the progress that has been made in recent years on development of KNN-based piezoelectric ceramics, including crystallographic structure and phase transition analysis, pressurized solid-state sintering as well as liquid-phase-assisted sintering process, and poling treatment for property enhancement. All in all, KNN is a promising lead-free system, but more research is still required both from academic and industrial interests.

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Wang, K., Li, J. (K, Na)NbO3-based lead-free piezoceramics: Phase transition, sintering and property enhancement. J Adv Ceram 1, 24–37 (2012) doi:10.1007/s40145-012-0003-3

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Key words

  • electrical properties
  • ferroelectric properties
  • piezoelectric properties
  • perovskites
  • niobates
  • lead-free