Genetics and Pathology of Chronic Traumatic Encephalopathy
Chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE), characterized by the presence of neurofibrillary and astrocytic tangles composed of hyperphosphorylated tau, is believed to be one of the pathological consequences of repetitive traumatic brain injury (TBI). CTE has been diagnosed post-mortem in numerous individuals, including professional boxers and American football players, with a history of repetitive TBI [1, 2••, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7]. Concomitant with the identification of these neurofibrillary and astrocytic tangles are retrospective reports from family members and friends of these individuals of memory problems and personality changes, suggesting that the observed pathological changes may underlie the reported behavioral changes. Multiple animal models have been developed to further explore how repetitive TBI results in these pathological findings and whether these alterations underlie behavioral changes.
Defining CTE and Limitations of Diagnosis
As more cases of CTE are identified,...
KeywordsTraumatic Brain Injury Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis Chronic Traumatic Encephalopathy Traumatic Brain Injury Model American Football Player
The support was received, in part, from grants from the National Institutes of Neurologic Disorders and Stroke (NS 065017) and National Institutes of Child Health and Development (NS 069163).
Papers of particular interest published in the last three years have been highlighted as: • Of importance •• Of major importance
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