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Female Athlete Triad

  • Women’s Health Rehabilitation (S Bennis and C Fitzgerald, Section Editors)
  • Published:
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Purpose of Review

The Female Athlete Triad (Triad) is a disorder observed in women and girls composed of three related components: low energy availability (EA), menstrual dysfunction, and low bone mineral density (BMD). The purpose of this review is to define the components of the Triad, review risk factors and complications, and review the diagnosis and management of the effects of the Triad.

Recent Findings

Recent research has defined guidelines for return to play for athlete with the Triad, which are summarized here. In addition, there has been recent vigorous debate and research in an attempt to define a related disorder in men.


The Female Athlete Triad is a complex disorder involving many physiological systems and is intertwined with mental health. Early intervention by an experienced team of healthcare providers allows for optimal treatment of the patient.

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Correspondence to Claire Gross.

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This article is part of the Topical Collection on Women’s Health Rehabilitation

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Gross, C., Joy, E. Female Athlete Triad. Curr Phys Med Rehabil Rep 8, 199–206 (2020).

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