Pediatric Regional Anesthesia Advances

Abstract

Purpose of Review

To present recent developments in pediatric regional anesthesia (RA) including safety, complications, special populations, evidence-based trends, and ultrasound guidance. The data presented should be used to improve outcomes of children receiving RA.

Recent Findings

Current data demonstrates a very low occurrence of serious complications and validates the use of GA for block placement in children. Fewer neuraxial blocks are performed in favor of peripheral blocks as the use of ultrasound guidance has made new blocks possible and old blocks better and safer. Neonates and infants have more RA options. Adjuvant medications and ambulatory catheters increase the duration of RA and facilitate cost-effective, low-risk hospital discharge. The local anesthetic systemic toxicity checklist reinforces new guidelines.

Summary

Increasing pediatric-specific RA data shows increased analgesic choices and improving patient care. Large well-designed studies to precisely define the risks and benefits and appropriate applications of novel ideas and technologies are needed.

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Fig. 1

References

Papers of particular interest, published recently, have been highlighted as: • Of importance •• Of major importance

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Correspondence to Karen R. Boretsky.

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Boretsky, K.R. Pediatric Regional Anesthesia Advances. Curr Anesthesiol Rep 9, 100–109 (2019). https://doi.org/10.1007/s40140-019-00318-z

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Keywords

  • Pediatric
  • Regional anesthesia
  • Local anesthetics
  • Acute pain