Cao Y, Wu S, Zhang L, Yang Y, Cao S, Li Q. Association of allergic rhinitis with obstructive sleep apnea: A meta-analysis. Medicine. 2018 Dec;97(51).
McColley SA, Carroll JL, Curtis S, et al. High prevalence of allergic sensitization in children with habitual snoring and obstructive sleep apnea. Chest. 1997;111:170–3.
Young T, Finn L, Kim H. Nasal obstruction as a risk factor for sleep-disordered breathing. The University of Wisconsin Sleep and Respiratory Research Group. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 1997;99(2):S757–62.
Young T, Finn L, Palta M. Chronic nasal congestion at night is a risk factor for snoring in a population-based cohort study. Arch Intern Med. 2001;161:1514–9.
Chirakalwasan N, Rusrungtham K. The linkage of allergic rhinitis and obstructive sleep apnea. Asian Pac J Allergy Immunol. 2014;32:276–86.
Tam YY, Shao IH, Wu CC, Hsieh ML. The impact of intranasal fluticasone on patients with obstructive sleep apnea: a prospective study. Braz J Otorhinolaryngol. 2021;87(2):152–6.
Brouillette RT, Manoukian JJ, Ducharme FM, Oudjhane K, Earle LG, Ladan S, Morielli A. Efficacy of fluticasone nasal spray for pediatric obstructive sleep apnea. J Pediatr. 2001;138(6):838–44.
Jeffery PK, Haahtela T. Allergic rhinitis and asthma: inflammation in a one-airway condition. BMC Pulm Med. 2006;6(1):1–2.
•• Wise SK, Lin SY, Toskala E, Orlandi RR, Akdis CA, Alt JA, Azar A, Baroody FM, Bachert C, Canonica GW, Chacko T. International consensus statement on allergy and rhinology: allergic rhinitis. InInternational forum of allergy & rhinology. 2018;8(2):108–352. https://doi.org/10.1002/alr.22073. This resource provides a wealth of validated information on the impact, burden, diagnosis and treatment of AR- including AR’s sleep and OSA effects.
• Damask CC, Ryan MW, Casale TB, Castro M, Franzese CB et al. Targeted Molecular Therapies in Allergy and Rhinology. Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 2021;164(1_suppl):S1–S21. This white paper on biologics and AR gives references and common ground for integration of target immunotherapy.
Thompson A, Sardana N, Craig TJ. Sleep impairment and daytime sleepiness in patients with allergic rhinitis: the role of congestion and inflammation. Ann Allergy Asthma Immunol. 2013;111(6):446–51. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.anai.2013.05.020.
Rimmer J, Downie S, Bartlett DJ, Gralton J, Salome C. Sleep disturbance in persistent allergic rhinitis measured using actigraphy. Annals of allergy, asthma & immunology : official publication of the American College of Allergy, Asthma, & Immunology. 2009;103(3):190–4. https://doi.org/10.1016/S1081-1206(10)60180-9.
Parikh NG, Junaid I, Sheinkopf L, Randhawa I, Santiago SM, Klaustermeyer WB. Clinical control in the dual diagnosis of obstructive sleep apnea syndrome and rhinitis: a prospective analysis. Am J Rhinol Allergy. 2014;28(1):e52–5. https://doi.org/10.2500/ajra.2014.28.3977.
Young T, Finn L, Kim H. Nasal obstruction as a risk factor for sleep-disordered breathing. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 1997;99(2):S757–62. https://doi.org/10.1016/s0091-6749(97)70124-6
Lunn M, Craig T. Rhinitis and sleep. Sleep Med Rev. 2011;15(5):293–9. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.smrv.2010.12.001.
Gao Z, Chen X, Xiang R, Zhang W, Tan L, Fan W, Liu P, Lv H, Xu Y. Changes in Resting-State Spontaneous Brain Activity in Patients With Allergic Rhinitis: A Pilot Neuroimaging Study. Front Neurosci. 2021;15: 697299. https://doi.org/10.3389/fnins.2021.697299.
McNicholas WT, Coffey M, Boyle T. Effects of nasal airflow on breathing during sleep in normal humans. Am Rev Respir Dis. 1993;147(3):620–3. https://doi.org/10.1164/ajrccm/147.3.620.
Basner RC, Simon PM, Schwartzstein RM, Weinberger SE, Weiss JW. Breathing route influences upper airway muscle activity in awake normal adults. J Appl Physiol. 1989;66(4):1766–71. https://doi.org/10.1152/jappl.19184.108.40.2066
Remmers JE, deGroot WJ, Sauerland EK, Anch AM. Pathogenesis of upper airway occlusion during sleep. Journal of applied physiology: respiratory, environmental and exercise physiology. 1978;44(6):931–8. https://doi.org/10.1152/jappl.19220.127.116.111.
Bonekat HW, Hardin KA. Severe upper airway obstruction during sleep. Clin Rev Allergy Immunol. 2003;25(2):191–210. https://doi.org/10.1385/CRIAI:25:2:191.
Papsidero MJ. The Nose and Its Impact on Snoring and Obstructive Sleep Apnea. Lippincott Williams & Wilkins; 2003.
Houser SM, Mamikoglu B, Aquino BF, Moinuddin R, Corey JP. Acoustic rhinometry findings in patients with mild sleep apnea. Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery. 2002;126(5):475–80. https://doi.org/10.1067/mhn.2002.124848
McNicholas WT, Tarlo S, Cole P, Zamel N, Rutherford R, Griffin D, Phillipson EA. Obstructive apneas during sleep in patients with seasonal allergic rhinitis. Am Rev Respir Dis. 1982;126(4):625–8. https://doi.org/10.1164/arrd.1918.104.22.1685.
Kiely JL, Nolan P, McNicholas WT. Intranasal corticosteroid therapy for obstructive sleep apnoea in patients with co-existing rhinitis. Thorax. 2004;59(1):50–5.
Lavigne F, Petrof BJ, Johnson JR, Lavigne P, Binothman N, Kassissia GO, Al Samri M, Giordano C, Dubé N, Hercz D, Benedetti A, Hamid Q. Effect of topical corticosteroids on allergic airway inflammation and disease severity in obstructive sleep apnoea. Clinical and experimental allergy : journal of the British Society for Allergy and Clinical Immunology. 2013;43(10):1124–33. https://doi.org/10.1111/cea.12158.
Demain JG, Goetz DW. Pediatric adenoidal hypertrophy and nasal airway obstruction: reduction with aqueous nasal beclomethasone. Pediatrics. 1995;95(3):355–64.
Morgenthaler TI, Kapen S, Lee-Chiong T, Alessi C, Boehlecke B, Brown T, Coleman J, Friedman L, Kapur V, Owens J, Pancer J, Swick T. Standards of Practice Committee, & American Academy of Sleep Medicine Practice parameters for the medical therapy of obstructive sleep apnea. Sleep. 2006;29(8):1031–5.
Strobel W, Schlageter M, Andersson M, Miedinger D, Chhajed PN, Tamm M, Leuppi JD. Topical nasal steroid treatment does not improve CPAP compliance in unselected patients with OSAS. Respir Med. 2011;105(2):310–5. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.rmed.2010.10.003.
Ji T, Lu T, Qiu Y, Li X, Liu Y, Tai J, Guo Y, Zhang J, Wang S, Zhao J, Ni X, Xu Z. The efficacy and safety of montelukast in children with obstructive sleep apnea: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Sleep Med. 2021;78:193–201. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.sleep.2020.11.009.
Goldbart AD, Goldman JL, Li RC, Brittian KR, Tauman R, Gozal D. Differential expression of cysteinyl leukotriene receptors 1 and 2 in tonsils of children with obstructive sleep apnea syndrome or recurrent infection. Chest. 2004;126(1):13–8. https://doi.org/10.1378/chest.126.1.13.
Tsaoussoglou M, Hatzinikolaou S, Baltatzis GE, Lianou L, Maragozidis P, Balatsos NA, Chrousos G, Kaditis AG. Expression of leukotriene biosynthetic enzymes in tonsillar tissue of children with obstructive sleep apnea: a prospective nonrandomized study. JAMA Otolaryngology–Head & Neck Surgery. 2014;140(10):944–50. https://doi.org/10.1001/jamaoto.2014.1936
Shusterman D, Baroody FM, Craig T, Friedlander S, Nsouli T, Silverman B, American Academy of Allergy A. Role of the allergist-immunologist and upper airway allergy in sleep-disordered breathing. J Allergy Clin Immunol Pract. 2017;5(3):628–39. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jaip.2016.10.007
Sherkat AA, Sardana N, Safaee S, Lehman EB, Craig TJ. The role of pseudoephedrine on daytime somnolence in patients suffering from perennial allergic rhinitis (PAR). Annals of allergy, asthma & immunology : official publication of the American College of Allergy, Asthma, & Immunology. 2011;106(2):97–102. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.anai.2010.11.013.
Fontanari P, Zattara-Hartmann MC, Burnet H, Jammes Y. Nasal eupnoeic inhalation of cold, dry air increases airway resistance in asthmatic patients. Eur Respir J. 1997;10(10):2250–4. https://doi.org/10.1183/09031936.97.10102250.
Ferguson BJ. Influences of allergic rhinitis on sleep. Otolaryngology—Head and Neck Surgery. 2004;130(5):617–29. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.otohns.2004.02.001
Fein MN, Fischer DA, O’Keefe AW, Sussman GL. CSACI position statement: Newer generation H1-antihistamines are safer than first-generation H1-antihistamines and should be the first-line antihistamines for the treatment of allergic rhinitis and urticaria. Allergy, asthma, and clinical immunology : official journal of the Canadian Society of Allergy and Clinical Immunology. 2019;15:61. https://doi.org/10.1186/s13223-019-0375-9.
Boyle J, Eriksson M, Stanley N, Fujita T, Kumagi Y. Allergy medication in Japanese volunteers: treatment effect of single doses on nocturnal sleep architecture and next day residual effects. Curr Med Res Opin. 2006;22(7):1343–51. https://doi.org/10.1185/030079906X112660.
Mann RD, Pearce GL, Dunn N, Shakir S. Sedation with “non-sedating” antihistamines: four prescription-event monitoring studies in general practice. BMJ (Clinical research ed). 2000;320(7243):1184–6. https://doi.org/10.1136/bmj.320.7243.1184.
Scioscia G, Buonamico E, Foschino Barbaro MP, Lacedonia D, Sabato R, Carpagnano GE. Omalizumab as add-on therapy in a patient with severe asthma and OSA. Respirology case reports. 2020;8(2): e0518. https://doi.org/10.1002/rcr2.518.
Lin SY, Melvin TA, Boss EF, Ishman SL. The association between allergic rhinitis and sleep-disordered breathing in children: a systematic review. International forum of allergy & rhinology. 2013;3(6):504–9. https://doi.org/10.1002/alr.21123.
Léger D, Annesi-Maesano I, Carat F, Rugina M, Chanal I, Pribil C, El Hasnaoui A, Bousquet J. Allergic rhinitis and its consequences on quality of sleep: An unexplored area. Arch Intern Med. 2006;166(16):1744–8. https://doi.org/10.1001/archinte.166.16.1744.
Koinis-Mitchell D, Craig T, Esteban CA, Klein RB. Sleep and allergic disease: a summary of the literature and future directions for research. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2012;130(6):1275–81.
Zheng M, Wang X, Ge S, Gu Y, Ding X, Zhang Y, Ye J, Zhang L. Allergic and Non-Allergic Rhinitis Are Common in Obstructive Sleep Apnea but Not Associated With Disease Severity. J Clin Sleep Med. 2017;13(8):959–66.
Berson SR, Klimczak JA, Prezio EA, Abraham MT. House Dust Mite Related Allergic Rhinitis and REM Sleep Disturbances. Am J Otolaryngol. 2020;41(6):102709.
Krouse HJ, Davis JE, Krouse JH. Immune mediators in allergic rhinitis and sleep. Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 2002;126(6):607–13.
Weaver TE, Grunstein RR. Adherence to continuous positive airway pressure therapy: the challenge to effective treatment. Proc Am Thorac Soci. 2008;5:173–8.
• Skirko JR, James KT, Shusterman DJ, Weaver EM. Association of allergic rhinitis with change in nasal congestion in new continuous positive airway pressure users. JAMA Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 2020;146(6):1–7. New CPAP users face a daunting task to accommodate to OSA’s first line therapy. Clinicians may impact success for patients when AR is considered and treated at the initiation of CPAP therapy.
• Camacho M, Riaz M, Capasso R, Ruoff CM, Guilleminault C, Kushida CA, Certal V. The effect of nasal surgery on continuous positive airway pressure device use and therapeutic treatment pressures: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Sleep. 2015 Feb 1;38(2):279–86. Surgical management of deficiencies in a patient’s upper airway play a significant adjunct role for successful OSA treatment with CPAP.
Allergies and sleep apnea: How are they connected?. Resmed. https://www.resmed.com/en-us/sleep-apnea/sleep-blog/allergies-and-sleep-apnea-how-are-they-connected/. Accessed 24 Nov 2021.
Yang Q, Li H, Wu W, Huang X, Tu B, Ma Y, Deng H, Li M, He H, Li C, Yang Y. Effect of continuous positive airway pressure on allergic rhinitis in patients with obstructive sleep apnea–hypopnea syndrome. Therapeutics and Clinical Risk Management. 2018;14:1507–13.