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Overview of Oncoplastic Breast Surgery Techniques for the Treatment of Breast Cancer with Review of Normal and Abnormal Postsurgical Imaging Findings

Abstract

Purpose of Review

This review aims to provide an overview of the role of oncoplastic breast surgery (OBS) in the current treatment of breast cancer, discuss common OBS techniques and review their postoperative imaging appearances.

Recent Findings

Oncoplastic breast surgery is an evolving set of techniques combining oncologic and plastic surgeries; it aims to effectively treat breast cancer while maintaining breast aesthetics. OBS techniques are used in both breast conservation surgery (BCS) and mastectomy. Factors that surgeons consider when choosing a technique include tumor size, location, and breast volume. The goal of OBS in breast conservation is to allow for wider tumor resection without compromising aesthetics. The goal of OBS with mastectomy is volume replacement with preserved cosmesis through breast reconstruction. Prosthetic and/or autologous reconstruction can be performed, and both skin-sparing and nipple-sparing techniques can be utilized. OBS has been found to be oncologically safe and has many benefits compared to traditional surgery; these benefits include a lower rate of positive margins with BCS through the creation of a wider resection, decreased surgical complications, and improved appearance. A main disadvantage is a more difficult re-excision in the occurrence of post-operative positive margins. Postsurgical complications include fat necrosis, fluid collections, and infection.

Summary

As OBS gains popularity, the objective of this article is to provide the radiologist with a synopsis of common OBS techniques and to provide a pictorial review of the common imaging findings that may be encountered after OBS.

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Lee, S., Mendez Broomberg, K., Baez, A. et al. Overview of Oncoplastic Breast Surgery Techniques for the Treatment of Breast Cancer with Review of Normal and Abnormal Postsurgical Imaging Findings. Curr Radiol Rep 10, 41–55 (2022). https://doi.org/10.1007/s40134-022-00394-w

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Keywords

  • Oncoplastic breast surgery
  • Breast reconstruction
  • Volume replacement
  • Volume displacement
  • Autologous reconstruction
  • Fat grafting