Advertisement

Current Pediatrics Reports

, Volume 6, Issue 2, pp 114–122 | Cite as

Oral Pre-exposure Prophylaxis (PrEP) for HIV Prevention in Adolescents and Young Adults

  • Tanya L. Kowalczyk Mullins
  • Corinne E. Lehmann
Adolescent Medicine (M Goldstein and L Johnson, Section Editors)
  • 58 Downloads
Part of the following topical collections:
  1. Topical Collection on Adolescent Medicine

Abstract

Purpose of Review

To review the literature about oral pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) for HIV prevention, with specific focus on adolescents.

Recent Findings

Use of PrEP reduces new HIV infections among men who have sex with men, heterosexuals, and people who inject drugs. One combination antiretroviral medication is approved for PrEP in the USA for adults. Limited data suggest that PrEP is safe for use in youth, although declines in adherence to PrEP over time suggest the need for adherence interventions specifically targeting youth. Safety concerns related to PrEP include potential negative impacts on bone density and renal function, as well as potential increases in riskier sexual behaviors. The U.S. Public Health Service has published guidelines for PrEP use in adults.

Summary

Current data suggest that PrEP use is safe in adolescents; however, further research is needed on the potential impact of long-term PrEP use on bone density and kidney function.

Keywords

HIV prevention Pre-exposure prophylaxis Adolescents PrEP 

Notes

Compliance with Ethical Standards

Conflict of Interest

The authors declare that they have no conflicts of interest.

Human and Animal Rights and Informed Consent

This article does not contain any studies with human or animal subjects performed by any of the authors.

References

Papers of particular interest, published recently, have been highlighted as: • Of importance •• Of major importance

  1. 1.
    •• Grant RM, Lama JR, Anderson PL, McMahan V, Liu AY, Vargas L, et al. Preexposure chemoprophylaxis for HIV prevention in men who have sex with men. New Engl J Med. 2010;363(27):2587–99.  https://doi.org/10.1056/NEJMoa1011205. Landmark study establishing efficacy of tenofovir-based PrEP. CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    •• Thigpen MC, Kebaabetswe PM, Paxton LA, Smith DK, Rose CE, Segolodi TM, et al. Antiretroviral preexposure prophylaxis for heterosexual HIV transmission in Botswana. New Engl J Med. 2012;367(5):423–34.  https://doi.org/10.1056/NEJMoa1110711. Landmark study establishing efficacy of tenofovir-based PrEP. CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    •• Baeten JM, Donnell D, Ndase P, Mugo NR, Campbell JD, Wangisi J, et al. Antiretroviral prophylaxis for HIV prevention in heterosexual men and women. New Engl J Med. 2012;367(5):399–410.  https://doi.org/10.1056/NEJMoa1108524. Landmark study establishing efficacy of tenofovir-based PrEP. CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    •• Choopanya K, Martin M, Suntharasamai P, Sangkum U, Mock PA, Leethochawalit M, et al. Antiretroviral prophylaxis for HIV infection in injecting drug users in Bangkok, Thailand (the Bangkok Tenofovir Study): a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled phase 3 trial. Lancet. 2013;381(9883):2083–90.  https://doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(13)61127-7. Landmark study establishing efficacy of tenofovir-based PrEP. CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Gilead Sciences I. Package labeling: TRUVADA® (emtricitabine/tenofovir disoproxil fumarate) tablets. 2017. https://www.accessdata.fda.gov/drugsatfda_docs/label/2017/021752s053lbl.pdf. Accessed 7/18/2017.
  6. 6.
    •• U.S. Public Health Service. Preexposure prophylaxis for the prevention of HIV infection in the United States—2014: a clinical practice guideline. 2014. http://www.cdc.gov/hiv/pdf/PrEPguidelines2014.pdf. Accessed 2/6/18. The current U.S. PrEP guidelines. Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    •• U.S. Public Health Service. Preexposure prophylaxis for the prevention of HIV infection in the United States—2014: clinical providers’ supplement. 2014. http://www.cdc.gov/hiv/pdf/PrEPProviderSupplement2014.pdf. Accessed 2/6/18. Supplement to the current U.S. PrEP guidelines containing materials to help clinicians to incorporate PrEP into practice. Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Donnell D, Baeten JM, Bumpus NN, Brantley J, Bangsberg DR, Haberer JE, et al. HIV protective efficacy and correlates of tenofovir blood concentrations in a clinical trial of PrEP for HIV prevention. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2014;66(3):340–8.  https://doi.org/10.1097/QAI.0000000000000172.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    • Grant RM, Anderson PL, McMahan V, Liu A, Amico KR, Mehrotra M, et al. Uptake of pre-exposure prophylaxis, sexual practices, and HIV incidence in men and transgender women who have sex with men: a cohort study. Lancet Infect Dis. 2014;14(9):820–9.  https://doi.org/10.1016/S1473-3099(14)70847-3. Study demonstrating that incomplete adherence to PrEP still provides protection against HIV for men who have sex with men. CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Cottrell ML, Yang KH, Prince HM, Sykes C, White N, Malone S, et al. A translational pharmacology approach to predicting outcomes of preexposure prophylaxis against HIV in men and women using tenofovir disoproxil fumarate with or without emtricitabine. J Infect Dis. 2016;214(1):55–64.  https://doi.org/10.1093/infdis/jiw077.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Anderson PL. Pharmacology considerations for HIV prevention. 13th International Workshop on Clinical Pharmacology of HIV; Barcelona, Spain.2012.Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Anderson PL, Kiser JJ, Gardner EM, Rower JE, Meditz A, Grant RM. Pharmacological considerations for tenofovir and emtricitabine to prevent HIV infection. J Antimicrob Chemother. 2011;66(2):240–50.  https://doi.org/10.1093/jac/dkq447.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    •• Hosek SG, Rudy B, Landovitz R, Kapogiannis B, Siberry G, Rutledge B, et al. An HIV preexposure prophylaxis demonstration project and safety study for young MSM. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2017;74(1):21–9.  https://doi.org/10.1097/QAI.0000000000001179. Study providing key safety and adherence data for PrEP use among young MSM. CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    •• Hosek SG, Landovitz RJ, Kapogiannis B, Siberry GK, Rudy B, Rutledge B, et al. Safety and feasibility of antiretroviral preexposure prophylaxis for adolescent men who have sex with men aged 15 to 17 years in the United States. JAMA Pediatr. 2017;171(11):1063–71.  https://doi.org/10.1001/jamapediatrics.2017.2007. Study providing key safety and adherence data for adolescents; the only published study to date that enrolled only those under age 18 years. CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Allen E, Gordon A, Krakower D, Hsu K. HIV preexposure prophylaxis for adolescents and young adults. Curr Opin Pediatr. 2017;29(4):399–406.  https://doi.org/10.1097/MOP.0000000000000512.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Marcus JL, Hurley LB, Hare CB, Nguyen DP, Phengrasamy T, Silverberg MJ, et al. Preexposure prophylaxis for HIV prevention in a large integrated health care system: adherence, renal safety, and discontinuation. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2016;73(5):540–6.  https://doi.org/10.1097/QAI.0000000000001129.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Mulligan K, Glidden DV, Anderson PL, Liu A, McMahan V, Gonzales P, et al. Effects of emtricitabine/tenofovir on bone mineral density in HIV-negative persons in a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Clin Infect Dis. 2015;61(4):572–80.  https://doi.org/10.1093/cid/civ324.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Glidden DV, Mulligan K, McMahan V, Anderson PL, Guanira J, Chariyalertsak S, et al. Brief report: recovery of bone mineral density after discontinuation of tenofovir-based HIV pre-exposure prophylaxis. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2017;76(2):177–82.  https://doi.org/10.1097/QAI.0000000000001475.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Havens PL, Stephensen CB, Van Loan MD, Schuster GU, Woodhouse LR, Flynn PM, et al. Decline in bone mass with tenofovir disoproxil fumarate/emtricitabine is associated with hormonal changes in the absence of renal impairment when used by HIV-uninfected adolescent boys and young men for HIV preexposure prophylaxis. Clin Infect Dis. 2017;64(3):317–25.  https://doi.org/10.1093/cid/ciw765.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Patrick R, Forrest D, Cardenas G, Opoku J, Magnus M, Phillips G 2nd, et al. Awareness, willingness, and use of pre-exposure prophylaxis among men who have sex with men in Washington, DC and Miami-Dade County, FL: national HIV behavioral surveillance, 2011 and 2014. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2017;75(Suppl 3):S375–S82.  https://doi.org/10.1097/QAI.0000000000001414. CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Oldenburg CE, Nunn AS, Montgomery M, Almonte A, Mena L, Patel RR et al. Behavioral changes following uptake of HIV pre-exposure prophylaxis among men who have sex with men in a clinical setting. AIDS Behav. 2017. Epub ahead of print. doi: https://doi.org/10.1007/s10461-017-1701-1.
  22. 22.
    Strauss BB, Greene GJ, Phillips G 2nd, Bhatia R, Madkins K, Parsons JT, et al. Exploring patterns of awareness and use of HIV pre-exposure prophylaxis among young men who have sex with men. AIDS Behav. 2017;21(5):1288–98.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10461-016-1480-0.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Liu AY, Cohen SE, Vittinghoff E, Anderson PL, Doblecki-Lewis S, Bacon O, et al. Preexposure prophylaxis for HIV infection integrated with municipal- and community-based sexual health services. JAMA Intern Med. 2016;176(1):75–84.  https://doi.org/10.1001/jamainternmed.2015.4683.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Newcomb ME, Moran K, Feinstein BA, Forscher E, Mustanski B. Pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) use and condomless anal sex: evidence of risk compensation in a cohort of young men who have sex with men. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2018;77(4):358–64.  https://doi.org/10.1097/QAI.0000000000001604.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Montgomery MC, Oldenburg CE, Nunn AS, Mena L, Anderson P, Liegler T, et al. Adherence to pre-exposure prophylaxis for HIV prevention in a clinical setting. PLoS One. 2016;11(6):e0157742.  https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0157742.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Hoornenborg E, Prins M, Achterbergh RCA, Woittiez LR, Cornelissen M, Jurriaans S, et al. Acquisition of wild-type HIV-1 infection in a patient on pre-exposure prophylaxis with high intracellular concentrations of tenofovir diphosphate: a case report. Lancet HIV. 2017;4(11):e522–e8.  https://doi.org/10.1016/S2352-3018(17)30132-7.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Knox DC, Anderson PL, Harrigan PR, Tan DH. Multidrug-resistant HIV-1 infection despite preexposure prophylaxis. New Engl J Med. 2017;376(5):501–2.  https://doi.org/10.1056/NEJMc1611639.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Hojilla JC, Vlahov D, Crouch PC, Dawson-Rose C, Freeborn K, Carrico A. HIV pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) uptake and retention among men who have sex with men in a community-based sexual health clinic. AIDS Behav. 2018;22(4):1096–9.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10461-017-2009-x.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Doblecki-Lewis S, Liu A, Feaster D, Cohen SE, Cardenas G, Bacon O, et al. Healthcare access and PrEP continuation in San Francisco and Miami after the US PrEP demo project. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2017;74(5):531–8.  https://doi.org/10.1097/QAI.0000000000001236.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Eaton LA, Kalichman SC, Price D, Finneran S, Allen A, Maksut J. Stigma and conspiracy beliefs related to pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) and interest in using PrEP among black and white men and transgender women who have sex with men. AIDS Behav. 2017;21(5):1236–46.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10461-017-1690-0.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Holloway IW, Tan D, Gildner JL, Beougher SC, Pulsipher C, Montoya JA, et al. Facilitators and barriers to pre-exposure prophylaxis willingness among young men who have sex with men who use geosocial networking applications in California. AIDS Patient Care STDs. 2017;31(12):517–27.  https://doi.org/10.1089/apc.2017.0082.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Rolle CP, Rosenberg ES, Siegler AJ, Sanchez TH, Luisi N, Weiss K, et al. Challenges in translating PrEP interest into uptake in an observational study of young black MSM. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2017;76(3):250–8.  https://doi.org/10.1097/QAI.0000000000001497.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Fallon SA, Park JN, Ogbue CP, Flynn C, German D. Awareness and acceptability of pre-exposure HIV prophylaxis among men who have sex with men in Baltimore. AIDS Behav. 2017;21(5):1268–77.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10461-016-1619-z.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Holloway IW, Dougherty R, Gildner J, Beougher SC, Pulsipher C, Montoya JA, et al. Brief report: PrEP uptake, adherence, and discontinuation among California YMSM using geosocial networking applications. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2017;74(1):15–20.  https://doi.org/10.1097/QAI.0000000000001164.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Walters SM, Rivera AV, Starbuck L, Reilly KH, Boldon N, Anderson BJ, et al. Differences in awareness of pre-exposure prophylaxis and post-exposure prophylaxis among groups at-risk for HIV in New York State: New York City and Long Island, NY, 2011–2013. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2017;75(Suppl 3):S383–S91.  https://doi.org/10.1097/QAI.0000000000001415. CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Peitzmeier SM, Tomko C, Wingo E, Sawyer A, Sherman SG, Glass N, et al. Acceptability of microbicidal vaginal rings and oral pre-exposure prophylaxis for HIV prevention among female sex workers in a high-prevalence US city. AIDS Care. 2017;29(11):1453–7.  https://doi.org/10.1080/09540121.2017.1300628.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Garfinkel DB, Alexander KA, McDonald-Mosley R, Willie TC, Decker MR. Predictors of HIV-related risk perception and PrEP acceptability among young adult female family planning patients. AIDS Care. 2017;29(6):751–8.  https://doi.org/10.1080/09540121.2016.1234679.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Kuhns LM, Reisner SL, Mimiaga MJ, Gayles T, Shelendich M, Garofalo R. Correlates of PrEP indication in a multi-site cohort of young HIV-uninfected transgender women. AIDS Behav. 2016;20(7):1470–7.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10461-015-1182-z.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Escudero DJ, Kerr T, Wood E, Nguyen P, Lurie MN, Sued O, et al. Acceptability of HIV pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) among people who inject drugs (PWID) in a Canadian setting. AIDS Behav. 2015;19(5):752–7.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10461-014-0867-z.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Garnett M, Hirsch-Moverman Y, Franks J, Hayes-Larson E, El-Sadr WM, Mannheimer S. Limited awareness of pre-exposure prophylaxis among black men who have sex with men and transgender women in New York City. AIDS Care. 2018;30(1):9–17.  https://doi.org/10.1080/09540121.2017.1363364.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Shrestha R, Karki P, Altice FL, Huedo-Medina TB, Meyer JP, Madden L, et al. Correlates of willingness to initiate pre-exposure prophylaxis and anticipation of practicing safer drug- and sex-related behaviors among high-risk drug users on methadone treatment. Drug Alcohol Depend. 2017;173:107–16.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.drugalcdep.2016.12.023.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Walters SM, Reilly KH, Neaigus A, Braunstein S. Awareness of pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) among women who inject drugs in NYC: the importance of networks and syringe exchange programs for HIV prevention. Harm Reduct J. 2017;14(1):40.  https://doi.org/10.1186/s12954-017-0166-x.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Jayakumaran JS, Aaron E, Gracely EJ, Schriver E, Szep Z. Knowledge, attitudes, and acceptability of pre-exposure prophylaxis among individuals living with HIV in an urban HIV clinic. PLoS One. 2016;11(2):e0145670.  https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0145670.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    • Arrington-Sanders R, Morgan A, Oidtman J, Qian I, Celentano D, Beyrer C. A medical care missed opportunity: preexposure prophylaxis and young black men who have sex with men. J Adolesc Health. 2016;59(6):725–8.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jadohealth.2016.08.006. Study of adolescent and young black MSM and PrEP. CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    • Wood SM, Lee S, Barg FK, Castillo M, Dowshen N. Young transgender women’s attitudes toward HIV pre-exposure prophylaxis. J Adolesc Health. 2017;60(5):549–55.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jadohealth.2016.12.004. Study of adolescent and young adult transgender women and PrEP. CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Franks J, Hirsch-Moverman Y, Loquere AS, Jr, Amico KR, Grant RM, Dye BJ et al. Sex, PrEP, and stigma: experiences with HIV pre-exposure prophylaxis among New York City MSM participating in the HPTN 067/ADAPT Study. AIDS Behav. 2017. Epub ahead of print. doi: https://doi.org/10.1007/s10461-017-1964-6.
  47. 47.
    Grace D, Jollimore J, MacPherson P, Strang MJP, Tan DHS. The pre-exposure prophylaxis-stigma paradox: learning from Canada’s first wave of PrEP users. AIDS Patient Care STDs. 2018;32(1):24–30.  https://doi.org/10.1089/apc.2017.0153.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    King HL, Keller SB, Giancola MA, Rodriguez DA, Chau JJ, Young JA, et al. Pre-exposure prophylaxis accessibility research and evaluation (PrEPARE Study). AIDS Behav. 2014;18(9):1722–5.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10461-014-0845-5.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Rowniak S, Ong-Flaherty C, Selix N, Kowell N. Attitudes, beliefs, and barriers to PrEP among trans men. AIDS Educ Prev. 2017;29(4):302–14.  https://doi.org/10.1521/aeap.2017.29.4.302.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Chan PA, Glynn TR, Oldenburg CE, Montgomery MC, Robinette AE, Almonte A, et al. Implementation of preexposure prophylaxis for human immunodeficiency virus prevention among men who have sex with men at a New England sexually transmitted diseases clinic. Sex Transm Dis. 2016;43(11):717–23.  https://doi.org/10.1097/OLQ.0000000000000514. CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Goparaju L, Praschan NC, Warren-Jeanpiere L, Experton LS, Young MA, Kassaye S. Stigma, partners, providers and costs: potential barriers to PrEP uptake among US women. J AIDS Clin Res. 2017;8(9)  https://doi.org/10.4172/2155-6113.1000730.
  52. 52.
    Hubach RD, Currin JM, Sanders CA, Durham AR, Kavanaugh KE, Wheeler DL, et al. Barriers to access and adoption of pre-exposure prophylaxis for the prevention of HIV among men who have sex with men (MSM) in a relatively rural state. AIDS Educ Prev. 2017;29(4):315–29.  https://doi.org/10.1521/aeap.2017.29.4.315.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    Knight R, Small W, Carson A, Shoveller J. Complex and conflicting social norms: implications for implementation of future HIV pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) interventions in Vancouver, Canada. PLoS One. 2016;11(1):e0146513.  https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0146513.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    Farhat D, Greene E, Paige MQ, Koblin BA, Frye V. Knowledge, stereotyped beliefs and attitudes around HIV chemoprophylaxis in two high HIV prevalence neighborhoods in New York City. AIDS Behav. 2017;21(5):1247–55.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10461-016-1426-6.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    Bacon O, Gonzalez R, Andrew E, Potter MB, Iniguez JR, Cohen SE, et al. Brief report: informing strategies to build PrEP capacity among San Francisco Bay Area clinicians. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2017;74(2):175–9.  https://doi.org/10.1097/QAI.0000000000001182.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    • Petroll AE, Walsh JL, Owczarzak JL, McAuliffe TL, Bogart LM, Kelly JA. PrEP awareness, familiarity, comfort, and prescribing experience among US primary care providers and HIV specialists. AIDS Behav. 2017;21(5):1256–67.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10461-016-1625-1. Study describing attitudes toward PrEP and experiences with PrEP among adult care providers. CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    Castel AD, Feaster DJ, Tang W, Willis S, Jordan H, Villamizar K, et al. Understanding HIV care provider attitudes regarding intentions to prescribe PrEP. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2015;70(5):520–8.  https://doi.org/10.1097/QAI.0000000000000780.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  58. 58.
    Blackstock OJ, Moore BA, Berkenblit GV, Calabrese SK, Cunningham CO, Fiellin DA, et al. A cross-sectional online survey of HIV pre-exposure prophylaxis adoption among primary care physicians. J Gen Intern Med. 2017;32(1):62–70.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s11606-016-3903-z.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  59. 59.
    Sachdev DD, Stojanovski K, Liu AY, Buchbinder SP, Macalino GE. Intentions to prescribe preexposure prophylaxis are associated with self-efficacy and normative beliefs. Clin Infect Dis. 2014;58(12):1786–7.  https://doi.org/10.1093/cid/ciu229.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  60. 60.
    Smith DK, Mendoza MC, Stryker JE, Rose CE. PrEP awareness and attitudes in a national survey of primary care clinicians in the United States, 2009–2015. PLoS One. 2016;11(6):e0156592.  https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0156592.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  61. 61.
    Adams LM, Balderson BH. HIV providers’ likelihood to prescribe pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) for HIV prevention differs by patient type: a short report. AIDS Care. 2016;28(9):1154–8.  https://doi.org/10.1080/09540121.2016.1153595.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  62. 62.
    Edelman EJ, Moore BA, Calabrese SK, Berkenblit G, Cunningham C, Patel V, et al. Primary care physicians’ willingness to prescribe HIV pre-exposure prophylaxis for people who inject drugs. AIDS Behav. 2017;21(4):1025–33.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10461-016-1612-6.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  63. 63.
    Blumenthal J, Jain S, Krakower D, Sun X, Young J, Mayer K, et al. Knowledge is power! Increased provider knowledge scores regarding pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) are associated with higher rates of PrEP prescription and future intent to prescribe PrEP. AIDS Behav. 2015;19(5):802–10.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10461-015-0996-z.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  64. 64.
    Krakower D, Ware N, Mitty JA, Maloney K, Mayer KH. HIV providers’ perceived barriers and facilitators to implementing pre-exposure prophylaxis in care settings: a qualitative study. AIDS Behav. 2014;18(9):1712–21.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10461-014-0839-3.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  65. 65.
    Sharma M, Wilton J, Senn H, Fowler S, Tan DH. Preparing for PrEP: perceptions and readiness of Canadian physicians for the implementation of HIV pre-exposure prophylaxis. PLoS One. 2014;9(8):e105283.  https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0105283.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  66. 66.
    Tellalian D, Maznavi K, Bredeek UF, Hardy WD. Pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) for HIV infection: results of a survey of HIV healthcare providers evaluating their knowledge, attitudes, and prescribing practices. AIDS Patient Care STDs. 2013;27(10):553–9.  https://doi.org/10.1089/apc.2013.0173.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  67. 67.
    White JM, Mimiaga MJ, Krakower DS, Mayer KH. Evolution of Massachusetts physician attitudes, knowledge, and experience regarding the use of antiretrovirals for HIV prevention. AIDS Patient Care STDs. 2012;26(7):395–405.  https://doi.org/10.1089/apc.2012.0030.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  68. 68.
    Karris MY, Beekmann SE, Mehta SR, Anderson CM, Polgreen PM. Are we prepped for preexposure prophylaxis (PrEP)? Provider opinions on the real-world use of PrEP in the United States and Canada. Clin Infect Dis. 2014;58(5):704–12.  https://doi.org/10.1093/cid/cit796.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  69. 69.
    Krakower DS, Oldenburg CE, Mitty JA, Wilson IB, Kurth AE, Maloney KM, et al. Knowledge, beliefs and practices regarding antiretroviral medications for HIV prevention: results from a survey of healthcare providers in New England. PLoS One. 2015;10(7):e0132398.  https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0132398.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  70. 70.
    •• Mullins TLK, Zimet G, Lally M, Xu J, Thornton S, Kahn JA. HIV care providers’ intentions to prescribe and actual prescription of pre-exposure prophylaxis to at-risk adolescents and adults. AIDS Patient Care STDs. 2017;31(12):504–16.  https://doi.org/10.1089/apc.2017.0147. The only published study to date describing attitudes toward and experiences with PrEP among HIV care providers who care for adolescents. CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  71. 71.
    •• Mullins TL, Zimet G, Lally M, Kahn JA. Adolescent human immunodeficiency virus care providers’ attitudes toward the use of oral pre-exposure prophylaxis in youth. AIDS Patient Care STDs. 2016;30(7):339–48.  https://doi.org/10.1089/apc.2016.0048. The only published study to date describing the perceived barriers to PrEP as described by HIV care clinicians who care for adolescents. CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  72. 72.
    Mullins TL, Lally M, Zimet G, Kahn JA, and the Adolescent Medicine Trials Network for HIV/AIDS Interventions. Clinician attitudes toward CDC interim pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) guidance and operationalizing PrEP for adolescents. AIDS Patient Care STDs. 2015;29(4):193–203.  https://doi.org/10.1089/apc.2014.0273.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  73. 73.
    Smith DK, Van Handel M, Wolitski RJ, Stryker JE, Hall HI, Prejean J, et al. Vital signs: estimated percentages and numbers of adults with indications for preexposure prophylaxis to prevent HIV acquisition—United States, 2015. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2015;64(46):1291–5.  https://doi.org/10.15585/mmwr.mm6446a4.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  74. 74.
    Liu A, Cohen S, Follansbee S, Cohan D, Weber S, Sachdev D, et al. Early experiences implementing pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) for HIV prevention in San Francisco. PLoS Med. 2014;11(3):e1001613.  https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pmed.1001613.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  75. 75.
    Calabrese SK, Magnus M, Mayer KH, Krakower DS, Eldahan AI, Gaston Hawkins LA, et al. Putting PrEP into practice: lessons learned from early-adopting U.S. providers’ firsthand experiences providing HIV pre-exposure prophylaxis and associated care. PLoS One. 2016;11(6):e0157324.  https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0157324.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  76. 76.
    Culp L, Caucci L. State adolescent consent laws and implications for HIV pre-exposure prophylaxis. Am J Prev Med. 2013;44(1 Suppl 2):S119–24.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.amepre.2012.09.044.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  77. 77.
    Guttmacher Institute. Minors’ access to STI services. 2018. https://www.guttmacher.org/state-policy/explore/minors-access-sti-services. Accessed 2/1/2018.
  78. 78.
    National Center for Youth Law. Teen Health Law. http://teenhealthlaw.org/. Accessed 2/1/2018.
  79. 79.
    PleasePrEPMe. PleasePrEPMe. 2018. www.pleaseprepme.org. Accessed 2/6/18.
  80. 80.
    AIDS Education and Training Center Program. AETC National Coordinating Resource Center. https://aidsetc.org/. Accessed 2/5/18.
  81. 81.
    Doll M, Fortenberry JD, Roseland D, McAuliff K, Wilson CM, Boyer CB. Linking HIV-negative youth to prevention services in 12 U.S. cities: barriers and facilitators to implementing the HIV prevention continuum. J Adolesc Health. 2017. Epub ahead of print. doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jadohealth.2017.09.009.
  82. 82.
    World Health Organization. Guideline on when to start antiretroviral therapy and on pre-exposure prophylaxis for HIV. 2015. http://apps.who.int/iris/bitstream/10665/186275/1/9789241509565_eng.pdf?ua=1. Accessed 2/5/18.
  83. 83.
    Radix A, Sevelius J, Deutsch MB. Transgender women, hormonal therapy and HIV treatment: a comprehensive review of the literature and recommendations for best practices. J Int AIDS Soc. 2016;19(3 Suppl 2):20810.  https://doi.org/10.7448/IAS.19.3.20810.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Tanya L. Kowalczyk Mullins
    • 1
    • 2
  • Corinne E. Lehmann
    • 1
    • 2
  1. 1.Division of Adolescent and Transition MedicineCincinnati Children’s Hospital Medical CenterCincinnatiUSA
  2. 2.University of Cincinnati College of MedicineCincinnatiUSA

Personalised recommendations