• Dellon ES, Gonsalves N, Hirano I, Furuta GT, Liacouras CA, Katzka DA. ACG clinical guideline: evidence based approach to the diagnosis and management of esophageal eosinophilia and eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE). Am J Gastroenterol. 2013;108:679–92; quiz 93. These are the most recent diagnostic and management criteria on EoE, authored exclusively by gastroenterologists, using the GRADE system. A heavy emphasis is placed on the importance of differentiating PPI-responsive esophageal eosinophilia from EoE.
• Liacouras CA, Furuta GT, Hirano I, et al. Eosinophilic esophagitis: updated consensus recommendations for children and adults. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2011;128:3–20 e6; quiz 1–2. These are the most updated consensus Allergy and Gastroenterology guidelines on the diagnosis and management of EoE.
Furuta GT, Liacouras CA, Collins MH, et al. Eosinophilic esophagitis in children and adults: a systematic review and consensus recommendations for diagnosis and treatment. Gastroenterology. 2007;133:1342–63.
Leslie C, Mews C, Charles A, Ravikumara M. Celiac disease and eosinophilic esophagitis: a true association. J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr. 2010;50:397–9.
• Greenhawt M, Aceves SS, Spergel JM, Rothenberg ME. The management of eosinophilic esophagitis. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2013;1:332–40. A recent review evaluating dietary therapy options in treating EoE. It includes a thorough discussion of the pros and cons of each style, and provides guidelines obtained from current evidence on food re-introduction in EoE.
• Dellon ES, Jensen ET, Martin CF, Shaheen NJ, Kappelman MD. Prevalence of eosinophilic esophagitis in the United States. Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2013. This is a key study providing the first population-based estimates of the prevalence of EoE in the US in both children and adults.
van Rhijn BD, Verheij J, Smout AJ, Bredenoord AJ. Rapidly increasing incidence of eosinophilic esophagitis in a large cohort. Neurogastroenterol Motil. 2013;25(47–52):e5.
• Noti M, Wojno ED, Kim BS, et al. Thymic stromal lymphopoietin-elicited basophil responses promote eosinophilic esophagitis. Nat Med. 2013;19:1005–13. This is a very important study that elucidates the role of the basophil in an IgE-independent model of EoE and further clarifies the potential role of TSLP as a key cytokine involved in pathogenesis of EoE.
Rothenberg ME. Biology and treatment of eosinophilic esophagitis. Gastroenterology. 2009;137:1238–49.
Kelly KJ, Lazenby AJ, Rowe PC, Yardley JH, Perman JA, Sampson HA. Eosinophilic esophagitis attributed to gastroesophageal reflux: improvement with an amino acid-based formula. Gastroenterology. 1995;109:1503–12.
Liacouras CA, Wenner WJ, Brown K, Ruchelli E. Primary eosinophilic esophagitis in children: successful treatment with oral corticosteroids. J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr. 1998;26:380–5.
Markowitz JE, Spergel JM, Ruchelli E, Liacouras CA. Elemental diet is an effective treatment for eosinophilic esophagitis in children and adolescents. Am J Gastroenterol. 2003;98:777–82.
• Spergel JM, Brown-Whitehorn TF, Cianferoni A, et al. Identification of causative foods in children with eosinophilic esophagitis treated with an elimination diet. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2012. This is a large cohrt study evaluating the effectiveness of several different food elimination diets. As well, it provides an update to the precision of food allergen diagnostic testing in EoE.
Kagalwalla AF, Sentongo TA, Ritz S, et al. Effect of six-food elimination diet on clinical and histologic outcomes in eosinophilic esophagitis. Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2006;4:1097–102.
Gonsalves N, Yang GÄ, Doerfler B, Ritz S, Ditto AM, Hirano I. Elimination diet effectively treats eosinophilic esophagitis in adults: food reintroduction identifies causative factors. Gastroenterology. 2012;142(1451–9):e1.
• Henderson CJ, Abonia JP, King EC, et al. Comparative dietary therapy effectiveness in remission of pediatric eosinophilic esophagitis. J Allergy Clin Immunol 2012;129:1570–8. This is a retrospective cohort study comparing the effects of the three major dietary elimination strageties on the rates of achieving remission in EoE. It noted superior effects for elemental diet, though patients were not randomized to any diet, and some patients in each of the three diet groups achieved remission.
Simon D, Marti H, Heer P, Simon HU, Braathen LR, Straumann A. Eosinophilic esophagitis is frequently associated with IgE-mediated allergic airway diseases. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2005;115:1090–2.
Plaza-Martin AM, Jimenez-Feijoo R, Andaluz C, et al. Polysensitization to aeroallergens and food in eosinophilic esophagitis in a pediatric population. Allergol Immunopathol (Madr). 2007;35:35–7.
Simon D, Straumann A, Dahinden C, Simon HU. Frequent sensitization to Candida albicans and profilins in adult eosinophilic esophagitis. Allergy. 2013;68:945–8.
Franciosi JP, Hommel KA, DeBrosse CW, et al. Quality of life in paediatric eosinophilic oesophagitis: what is important to patients? Child Care Health Dev. 2012;38:477–83.
• Franciosi JP, Hommel KA, Bendo CB, et al. PedsQL eosinophilic esophagitis module: feasibility, reliability and validity. J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr 2013. This is a study that describes the formation and validation of the first quality of life measure (parental proxy report of the child’s quality of life) in EoE.
Kavanagh BP. The GRADE system for rating clinical guidelines. PLoS Med. 2009;6:e1000094.
Ngo P, Furuta GT, Antonioli DA, Fox VL. Eosinophils in the esophagus–peptic or allergic eosinophilic esophagitis? Case series of three patients with esophageal eosinophilia. Am J Gastroenterol. 2006;101:1666–70.
Molina-Infante J, Ferrando-Lamana L, Fernandez-Bermejo M, Porcel-Carreno S. Eosinophilic esophagitis in GERD patients: a clinicopathological diagnosis using proton pump inhibitors. Am J Gastroenterol. 2009;104:2856–7.
Sayej WN, Patel R, Baker RD, Tron E, Baker SS. Treatment with high-dose proton pump inhibitors helps distinguish eosinophilic esophagitis from noneosinophilic esophagitis. J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr. 2009;49:393–9.
Molina-Infante J, Ferrando-Lamana L, Ripoll C, et al. Esophageal eosinophilic infiltration responds to proton pump inhibition in most adults. Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2011;9:110–7.
Dohil R, Newbury RO, Aceves S. Transient PPI responsive esophageal eosinophilia may be a clinical sub-phenotype of pediatric eosinophilic esophagitis. Dig Dis Sci. 2012;57:1413–9.
• Zhang X, Cheng E, Huo X, et al. Omeprazole blocks STAT6 binding to the eotaxin-3 promoter in eosinophilic esophagitis cells. PLoS ONE 2012;7:e50037. A key paper describing evidence of how PPI may act as an anti-inflammatory agent that inhibits eosinophils through a mechanism independent of gastric acid suppression.
Schroeder S, Capocelli KE, Masterson JC, et al. Effect of proton pump inhibitor on esophageal eosinophilia. J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr. 2013;56:166–72.
Moawad FJ, Veerappan GR, Dias JA, Baker TP, Maydonovitch CL, Wong RK. Randomized controlled trial comparing aerosolized swallowed fluticasone to esomeprazole for esophageal eosinophilia. Am J Gastroenterol. 2013;108:366–72.
• Dellon ES, Speck O, Woodward K, et al. Clinical and endoscopic characteristics do not reliably differentiate PPI-responsive esophageal eosinophilia and eosinophilic esophagitis in patients undergoing upper endoscopy: a prospective cohort study. Am J Gastroenterol 2013;108:1854–60. This is a large cohort study that demonstrates PPI-REE and EoE cannot be diferentiated from one another by symptoms or endoscopic/histologic features.
Molina-Infante J, Katzka DA, Gisbert JP. Review article: proton pump inhibitor therapy for suspected eosinophilic oesophagitis. Aliment Pharmacol Ther. 2013;37:1157–64.
Liacouras CA, Spergel JM, Ruchelli E, et al. Eosinophilic esophagitis: a 10-year experience in 381 children. Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2005;3:1198–206.
Spergel JM, Beausoleil JL, Mascarenhas M, Liacouras CA. The use of skin prick tests and patch tests to identify causative foods in eosinophilic esophagitis. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2002;109:363–8.
Spergel JM, Andrews T, Brown-Whitehorn TF, Beausoleil JL, Liacouras CA. Treatment of eosinophilic esophagitis with specific food elimination diet directed by a combination of skin prick and patch tests. Ann Allergy Asthma Immunol. 2005;95:336–43.
Spergel JM, Brown-Whitehorn T, Beausoleil JL, Shuker M, Liacouras CA. Predictive values for skin prick test and atopy patch test for eosinophilic esophagitis. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2007;119:509–11.
Kagalwalla AF, Shah A, Li BUK, et al. Identification of specific foods responsible for inflammation in children with eosinophilic esophagitis successfully treated with empiric elimination diet. J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr. 2011;53:145–9. doi:10.1097/MPG.0b013e31821cf503.
Lucendo AJ, Arias A, Gonzalez-Cervera J, et al. Empiric 6-food elimination diet induced and maintained prolonged remission in patients with adult eosinophilic esophagitis: a prospective study on the food cause of the disease. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2013;131:797–804.
Molina-Infante J, Martin-Noguerol E, Alvarado-Arenas M, Porcel-Carreno SL, Jimenez-Timon S, Hernandez-Arbeiza FJ. Selective elimination diet based on skin testing has suboptimal efficacy for adult eosinophilic esophagitis. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2012;130:1200–2.
Boyce JA, Assa’ad A, Burks AW, et al. Guidelines for the diagnosis and management of food allergy in the United States: report of the NIAID-sponsored expert panel. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2010;126:S1–58.
Konstantinou GN, Kim JS. Paradigm shift in the management of milk and egg allergy: baked milk and egg diet. Immunol Allergy Clin North Am. 2012;32:151–64.
• Leung J, Hundal NV, Katz AJ, et al. Tolerance of baked milk in patients with cow’s milk-mediated eosinophilic esophagitis. J Allergy Clin Immunol 2013;132:1215–6 e1. Provides insightful pilot-level study into the concept of epitope specificity in dietary management of EoE, in that heal-labile milk epitopes may be well-tolerated by milk sensitive children with EoE.
Rothenberg ME, Spergel JM, Sherrill JD, et al. Common variants at 5q22 associate with pediatric eosinophilic esophagitis. Nat Genet. 2010;42:289–91.
Mavi P, Rajavelu P, Rayapudi M, Paul RJ, Mishra A. Esophageal functional impairments in experimental eosinophilic esophagitis. Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol. 2012;302:G1347–55.
Niranjan R, Rayapudi M, Mishra A, Dutt P, Dynda S. Pathogenesis of allergen-induced eosinophilic esophagitis is independent of interleukin (IL)-13. Immunol Cell Biol. 2013;91:408–15.
Niranjan R, Mavi P, Rayapudi M, Dynda S, Mishra A. Pathogenic role of mast cells in experimental eosinophilic esophagitis. Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol. 2013;304:G1087–94.
Lucendo AJ, Arias A, De Rezende LC, et al. Subepithelial collagen deposition, profibrogenic cytokine gene expression, and changes after prolonged fluticasone propionate treatment in adult eosinophilic esophagitis: a prospective study. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2011;128:1037–46.
Islam SA, Ling MF, Leung J, Shreffler WG, Luster AD. Identification of human CCR8 as a CCL18 receptor. J Exp Med. 2013;210:1889–98.
Aceves SS, Chen D, Newbury RO, Dohil R, Bastian JF, Broide DH. Mast cells infiltrate the esophageal smooth muscle in patients with eosinophilic esophagitis, express TGF-beta1, and increase esophageal smooth muscle contraction. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2010;126(1198–204):e4.
Abonia JP, Blanchard C, Butz BB, et al. Involvement of mast cells in eosinophilic esophagitis. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2010;126:140–9.
• Otani IM, Anilkumar AA, Newbury RO, et al. Anti-IL-5 therapy reduces mast cell and IL-9 cell numbers in pediatric patients with eosinophilic esophagitis. J Allergy Clin Immunol 2013;131:1576–82. An important study reprsenting post hoc analysis of samples from an earlier anti-IL-5 study that showed that anti-IL-5 decreased mast cell numbers in treated tissue, and decreased esophageal eosinophil derived IL-9.
Krishnamurthy P, Sherrill JD, Parashette K, et al. Correlation of increased PARP14 and CCL26 expression in biopsies from children with eosinophilic esophagitis. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2013;133(2):577–80.
• Furuta GT, Kagalwalla AF, Lee JJ, et al. The oesophageal string test: a novel, minimally invasive method measures mucosal inflammation in eosinophilic oesophagitis. Gut 2013;62:1395–405. A very novel study that describes a minimally invasive procedure for diagnosing EoE.
• Nicodeme F, Hirano I, Chen J, et al. Esophageal distensibility as a measure of disease severity in patients with eosinophilic esophagitis. Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol 2013;11:1101–7 e1. A very novel study that explores a method of assessing esophageal wall thickness as a marker of fibrosis in EoE.
Mishra A, Wang M, Pemmaraju VR, et al. Esophageal remodeling develops as a consequence of tissue specific IL-5-induced eosinophilia. Gastroenterology. 2008;134:204–14.
Straumann A, Conus S, Degen L, et al. Budesonide is effective in adolescent and adult patients with active eosinophilic esophagitis. Gastroenterology 2010;139:1526–37, 37e1.
Aceves SS, Newbury RO, Dohil R, Bastian JF, Broide DH. Esophageal remodeling in pediatric eosinophilic esophagitis. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2007;119:206–12.
• Schoepfer AM, Safroneeva E, Bussmann C, et al. Delay in diagnosis of eosinophilic esophagitis increases risk for stricture formation in a time-dependent manner. Gastroenterology 2013;145:1230–6 e1–2. One of the first long-term outcome studies in EoE demonstrating that delay in diagnosis and treatment of EoE is associated with some risk of stricture formation.
• Dellon ES, Kim HP, Sperry SL, Rybnicek DA, Woosley JT, Shaheen NJ. A phenotypic analysis shows that eosinophilic esophagitis is a progressive fibrostenotic disease. Gastrointest Endosc 2013. One of the first studies to identify different phenotypes of disease in EoE.
• Wen T, Stucke EM, Grotjan TM, et al. Molecular diagnosis of eosinophilic esophagitis by gene expression profiling. Gastroenterology 2013;145:1289–99. This is an important paper describing a novel diagnostic technique for investigating genetic and molecular markers through parafin stained esophageal biopsy samples.