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Table 3 Association between vulvodynia and several pregnancy and delivery characteristics of the index pregnancy by age category, Boston, Massachusetts, 2000–2003

From: A Population-Based Study of Pregnancy and Delivery Characteristics Among Women with Vulvodynia

  All women Women whose reference age <30 years
Cases (n = 227) Controls (n = 227) P value* Cases (n = 177) Controls (n = 179) P value
No. of pregnancies after reference age, all women, no. (%)
 0 131 (57.7) 115 (50.7) 0.11 98 (55.4) 86 (48.0) 0.06
 1 44 (19.4) 37 (16.3)   36 (20.3) 27 (15.1)  
 2 31 (13.7) 41 (18.1)   25 (14.1) 34 (19.0)  
 ≥3 21 (9.3) 34 (15.0)   18 (10.2) 32 (17.9)  
  Cases (n = 96) Controls (n = 112) P value* Cases (n = 79) Controls (n = 93) P value
No. of pregnancies after reference age, excluding women with no pregnancies, no. (%)a 2.01 (1.32) 2.18 (1.25) 0.35 2.03 (1.36) 2.24 (1.11) 0.29
Index pregnancy outcome
 Therapeutic abortion 19 (19.8) 19 (17.0) 0.87 17 (21.5) 17 (18.3) 0.91
 Miscarriage 13 (13.5) 16 (14.3)   11 (13.9) 15 (16.1)  
 Ectopic 1 (1.0) 1 (0.9)   1 (1.3) 1 (1.1)  
 Stillborn 1 (1.0) 1 (0.9)   1 (1.3) 1 (1.1)  
 Preterm live born 7 (7.3) 5 (4.5)   5 (6.3) 4 (4.3)  
 Full term live born 53 (55.2) 69 (61.6)   42 (53.2) 54 (58.1)  
 Multiple birth 1 (1.0) 0 (0)   1 (1.3) 0 (0)  
Mode of delivery, no. (%)b
 Cesarean delivery 18 (30.0) 12 (16.7) 0.07 12 (25.5) 9 (16.1) 0.24
 Vaginal delivery 42 (70.0) 60 (83.3)   35 (74.5) 47 (83.9)  
  Cases (n = 42) Controls (n = 60) P value* Cases (n = 35) Controls (n = 49) P value
Among vaginal deliveries only
 Vulvar injury during deliverya
  Episiotomy 18 (42.9) 32 (53.3) 0.59 15 (42.9) 30 (61.2) 0.26
  Tear 16 (38.1) 17 (28.3)   13 (37.1) 11 (22.4)  
  Both episiotomy and tear 7 (16.7) 8 (13.3)   6 (17.1) 5 (10.2)  
  Intact 1 (2.4) 3 (5.0)   1 (2.9) 3 (6.1)  
 Length of active pushing (h)
  <1 23 (54.8) 32 (53.3) 0.92 18 (51.4) 23 (46.9) 0.59
  1–2 7 (16.7) 9 (15.0)   8 (22.8) 8 (16.3)  
  >2 11 (26.2) 18 (30.0)   9 (25.7) 17 (34.7)  
  Cases (n = 35) Controls (n = 53) P value* Cases (n = 30) Controls (n = 44) P value
Postpartum pain from vulvar injury (months)
 ≤2 22 (62.9) 47 (88.7) <0.01 21 (70.0) 39 (88.6) 0.04
 >2 13 (37.1) 6 (11.3)   9 (30.0) 5 (11.4)  
  1. P values test between the cases and controls in that sample
  2. aValues are mean (SD)
  3. bMode of delivery only for infants born alive (i.e., preterm live born, full term live born, and multiples)