Skip to main content

Optimization of Nail Inclination Angle in Soil Nail Walls Based on a Prevalent Limit Equilibrium Method

Abstract

Although a variety of research works have been carried out to investigate the behavior of nailed slopes and nail walls, only a few studies are devoted to the optimum design of soil nail walls. In this study, the limit equilibrium-based approach presented in FHWA manual, which is the prevalent design method in conjunction with nonlinear programming, has been used. Based on this approach, the optimum nail inclination angle (η) leading to the maximum safety (FS) factor against overall failure was determined for typical soil nail walls. Effects of some primary contributing factors such as nail diameter, nail length, soil friction, slope angle, back slope angle, and layout of nails on the optimum design indices were investigated thoroughly and presented in dimensionless graphs. Results indicate that increase in the nail diameter gives rise to an increase in both FS and ηopt. In addition, increasing the length of nails up to 1.875H leads to the most significant improvement in slope stability. Furthermore, the increase in soil friction results in an improvement in FS and a limited rise in ηopt. Steeper nail walls are less stable and require higher ηopt, a linear function of slope orientation (α). A higher back slope angle was found to reduce FS. Furthermore, it was found that inserting the nails in the lower 1/3 part of the slope leads to the highest efficiency, and the nails have a minor influence on the stability of short walls or highly cohesive slopes.

This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.

Fig. 1
Fig. 2
Fig. 3
Fig. 4
Fig. 5
Fig. 6
Fig. 7
Fig. 8
Fig. 9
Fig. 10
Fig. 11
Fig. 12
Fig. 13
Fig. 14
Fig. 15
Fig. 16
Fig. 17
Fig. 18
Fig. 19
Fig. 20
Fig. 21
Fig. 22
Fig. 23
Fig. 24
Fig. 25
Fig. 26
Fig. 27
Fig. 28

Availability of data and material

All required data have been presented in the manuscript.

Code availability

A custom code prepared by the authors was used in this study.

References

  1. 1.

    Ardakani A, Bayat M, Javanmard M (2014) Numerical modeling of soil nail walls considering Mohr Coulomb, hardening soil and hardening soil with small-strain stiffness effect models. Geomech. Eng. 6(4):391–401

    Article  Google Scholar 

  2. 2.

    Basudhar PK, Anubhav LMR (2017) Three-dimensional limit-equilibrium stability analyses of slopes and effect of inclusion of soil nails. Int J Geomech 17:04017067

    Article  Google Scholar 

  3. 3.

    Byrne RJ, Cotton D, Porterfield J, Wolschlag C, Ueblacker G (1996) Manual for design and construction monitoring of soil nail walls. (No. FHWA-SA-96–069).

  4. 4.

    Chan CM, Raman MHA (2017) Screw-in soil nail for slope reinforcement against slip failure: a lab-based model study. Int. J. Geomat. 12(29):148–155

    Google Scholar 

  5. 5.

    Cheuk CY, Ng CWW, Sun HW (2005) Numerical experiments of soil nails in loose fill slopes subjected to rainfall infiltration effects. Comput Geotech 32:290–303

    Article  Google Scholar 

  6. 6.

    Fan CC, Luo JH (2008) Numerical study on the optimum layout of soil–nailed slopes. Comput Geotech 35:585–599

    Article  Google Scholar 

  7. 7.

    Gassler G, Gudehus G (1981) Soil-nailing: some aspects of a new technique. In: Proceedings of the Tenth ICSMFE, Stockholm: 665–670

  8. 8.

    Güler E, Bozkurt C (2004) The effect of upward nail inclination to the stability of soil nailed structures. Geotechn Eng Transport Proj. https://doi.org/10.1061/40744(154)218

    Article  Google Scholar 

  9. 9.

    Gutierrez V, Tatsuoka AF (1988) Role of facing in reinforce in cohesionless soil slopes by means of metal strips. In: Proceedings of the international geotechnical symposium on theory and practice of earth reinforcement, Kyushu, Japan :289–294

  10. 10.

    Imam R, Hoseini SS (2016) Design and optimization procedure for composite soil nail-anchor walls. Japanese Geotechn. Soc. Spec. Public. 2(45):1597–1601

    Google Scholar 

  11. 11.

    Janbu N (1973) Slope stability computation. in: R.C. Hirchfield and S. J. Poulos (eds) Embankment Dam Engineering. Casagrande Volume. Wiley New york: 47–86.

  12. 12.

    Jelusic B, Zlender B (2013) Soil-nail wall stability analysis using Anfis. Acta geotechnica Slovenica 10:61–73

    Google Scholar 

  13. 13.

    Jewell RA, Pedley MJ (1992) Analysis for soil reinforcement with bending stiffness. J. geotechn. Eng. 118:1505–1528

    Article  Google Scholar 

  14. 14.

    Juran I, Baudrand G, Farrag K, Elias V (1990) Kinematical limit analysis for design of soil-nailed structures. ASCE J. Geotechn. Eng 116:54–72

    Article  Google Scholar 

  15. 15.

    Kim JS, Kim JY, Lee SR (1997) Analysis of soil nailed earth slope by discrete element method. Comput Geotech 20:1–14

    Article  Google Scholar 

  16. 16.

    Kitamura T, Nagao A, Uehara S (1988) Model loading tests of reinforced slope with steel bars. In: Proceedings of the international geotechnical symposium on theory and practice of earth reinforcements , Kyushu, Japan: 311–316

  17. 17.

    Lazarte CA, Robinson H, Gómez JE, Baxter A, Cadden A, Berg R (2015) Soil Nail Walls Reference Manual (No. FHWA-NHI-14–007).

  18. 18.

    MATLAB (2012), Programming. Version 7, The Math Works Inc., USA

  19. 19.

    Michalowski RL (1998) Limit analysis in stability calculations of reinforced soil structures. Geotext Geomembr 16:311–331

    Article  Google Scholar 

  20. 20.

    Ming CY (2008) Centrifuge and three dimensional numerical modelling of CDG filled slope reinforced with different nail inclinations. M.Phil. dissertation, Hong Kong University of Science and Technology, Hong Kong.

  21. 21.

    Mitchell JK, Villet WCB (1980) Reinforcement of Earth Slopes and Embankment. National Cooperative Highway Research Program Report, Transportation Research Board 290

  22. 22.

    Moradi M, Pooresmaeili Babaki A, Sabermahani M (2020) Effect of Nail Arrangement on the Behavior of Convex Corner Soil-Nailed Walls. J. Geotechn. Geoenvironm. Eng. 146(5):04020026

    Article  Google Scholar 

  23. 23.

    Nowatzki E, Samtani N (2004) Design, construction, and performance of an 18-meter soil nail wall in Tucson, AZ. In GeoSupport 2004: Innovation and Cooperation in the Geo-IndustryAmerican Society of Civil EngineersAmerican Society of Civil EngineersInternational Association of Foundation Drilling.

  24. 24.

    Patra CR, Basudhar PK (2005) Optimum design of nailed soil slopes. Geotech Geol Eng. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10706-004-2146-7

    Article  Google Scholar 

  25. 25.

    Rawat S, Gupta AK (2018) Testing and modelling of screw nailed soil slopes. Ind. Geotechn. J. 48(1):52–71

    Article  Google Scholar 

  26. 26.

    Rawat S, Zodinpuii R, Manna B, Sharma KG (2014) Investigation on failure mechanism of nailed soil slopes under surcharge loading: testing and analysis. Geomechan. Geoeng. 9:18–35

    Article  Google Scholar 

  27. 27.

    Sabahit N, Basudhar PK, Madhav MR (1995) A Generalized procedure for the procedure for the optimum design of nailed soil slopes. Int J Numer Anal Method Geomech 19:437–452

    Article  Google Scholar 

  28. 28.

    Sabermahani M, Ahimoghadam F, Ghalehnovi V (2018) Effect of surcharge magnitude on soil-nailed wall behaviour in a geotechnical centrifuge. Int. J. Phys. Modell. Geotechn 18(5):225–239

    Article  Google Scholar 

  29. 29.

    Sawick A, Lesniewska D, Kulczykowski M (1988) Measured and predicted stresses and bearing capacity of a full scale slope reinforced with nails. Soils Found 1128:47–56

    Article  Google Scholar 

  30. 30.

    Schlosser F (1982) Behavior and design of soil nailing, Proceedings in. Symposium on Recent Development in Ground Improvement Techniques, Bangkok: 399–413

  31. 31.

    Seo HJ, Lee IM, Lee SW (2014) Optimization of soil nailing design considering three failure modes. KSCE J Civ Eng 18:488–496

    Article  Google Scholar 

  32. 32.

    Shahnazari H, Alizadeh M, Tayefi S, Saeedi Javadi A (2019) Three-dimensional centrifuge modeling of soil nail walls. International Journal of Geotechnical Engineering, 1–8.

  33. 33.

    Sharma A, Ramkrishnan R (2020) Parametric Optimization and Multi-regression Analysis for Soil Nailing Using Numerical Approaches. Geotechnical and Geological Engineering:1–19

  34. 34.

    Sharma M, Choudhury D, Samanta M, Sarkar S, Annapareddy VR (2019) Analysis of helical soil nailed walls under static and seismic conditions. Canadian Geotechnical Journal, (ja).

  35. 35.

    Singh VP, Sivakumar Babu GL (2010) 2D Numerical simulations of soil nail walls. Geotech Geol Eng 28:299–309

    Article  Google Scholar 

  36. 36.

    Stocker M.F, Korber GW, Gassler G, Gudehus G (1979) Soil nailing. In: Proceedings of the International Conference on Soil Reinforcement, Paris: 469–474

  37. 37.

    Tei K, Taylor RN, Milligan GWE (1998) Centrifuge model tests of nailed soil slopes. Soils and Foundation 38:165–177

    Article  Google Scholar 

  38. 38.

    Turner JP, Jensen WG (2005) Landslide stabilization using soil nail and mechanically stabilized earth walls: case study. J. Geotechn. Geoenvironm. Eng. 131:141–150

    Article  Google Scholar 

  39. 39.

    Viswanadham BVS, Rotte VM (2015) Effect of facing type on the behaviour of soil-nailed slopes. centrifuge and numerical study. Discovery 46:214–223

    Google Scholar 

  40. 40.

    Wang, B., Jiang, X. and Liu, Q., (2020), Study on the Supporting Features of Composite Soil Nailing Wall. IOP Conf. Series.: Earth Environ. Sci. 455 012111

  41. 41.

    Yang M, Drumm E (2000) Numerical analysis of the load transfer and deformation in a soil nailed slope. Numer Meth Geotechn Eng. https://doi.org/10.1061/40502(284)8

    Article  Google Scholar 

  42. 42.

    Yazdandoust M (2017) Experimental study on seismic response of soil-nailed walls with permanent facing. Soil Dyn Earthq Eng 98:101–119

    Article  Google Scholar 

  43. 43.

    Yazdandoust M (2019) Assessment of horizontal seismic coefficient for three different types of reinforced soil structure using physical and analytical modeling. Int J Geomech 19(7):04019070

    Article  Google Scholar 

  44. 44.

    Yazdandoust M (2019) b) Shaking table modeling of MSE/soil nail hybrid retaining walls. Soils Found 59(2):241–252

    Article  Google Scholar 

  45. 45.

    Zhang G, Cao J, Wang L (2014) Failure behavior and mechanism of slopes reinforced using soil nail wall under various loading conditions. Soils Found 54:1175–1187

    Article  Google Scholar 

  46. 46.

    Zhou YD, Cheuk CY, Tham LG (2009) Numerical modelling of soil nails in loose fill slope under surcharge loading. Comput Geotech 36:837–850

    Article  Google Scholar 

Download references

Funding

No funding was received for conducting this study.

Author information

Affiliations

Authors

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Mohammad Reza Arvin.

Ethics declarations

Conflicts of interest

The authors declare they have no financial interests.

Ethics Approval

The paper has been submitted with full responsibility, following the due ethical procedure, and there is no duplicate publication, fraud, plagiarism, or concerns about human experimentation.

Consent to participate/publication

All authors have revised the paper and have accepted the final version of the paper to be submitted to the journal and published and agreed to be accountable for all aspects of the work.

Additional information

Publisher's Note

Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Arvin, M.R., Ghavami, E. & Motamedi Azari, M. Optimization of Nail Inclination Angle in Soil Nail Walls Based on a Prevalent Limit Equilibrium Method. Indian Geotech J (2021). https://doi.org/10.1007/s40098-021-00574-z

Download citation

Keywords

  • Nail soil wall
  • Optimization
  • Limit equilibrium
  • Safety factor
  • Overall failure