Recent upsurge in infrastructural development and expansion in urban area necessitates productive utilisation of underground space. To address this, it is appropriate to adopt diaphragm wall retaining structures. The design and construction of diaphragm walls require greater care and expertise. Unsatisfactory implementation of such structures will adversely affect the performance and cost-effectiveness of entire project. Not many standards are available at present that regulate the specific requirements of diaphragm walls. The existing standards refer to structural codes for reinforcement calculations. Hence, comparison of these standards and comprehensive study on the specifications applicable to diaphragm walls are necessary. In this research, different structural design codes are evaluated for their applications specific for diaphragm walls. The standards considered for the analysis and design of diaphragm walls include EN 1997-1, AS 4678, BS 8002, BS 8004, Canadian foundation engineering manual, IS 9556, ACI 318, AS 3600, BS 8110, BS EN 1538, CSA A23.3, EN 1992-1-1 and IS 456. These codes differ on design equations, safety factors, reinforcement ratios, moment capacity, etc., resulting in varied design loads and reinforcements. Comparisons and discussions are made based on calculated reinforcements to conclude that even though the concepts and methodologies are similar, there are major variations in design outcome. As both structural and geotechnical considerations are to be met for deep embedded structures, specifications more than those provided in structural codes should be counted. Based on the research, it is recommended to develop specific analysis and design procedures considering all the requirements of diaphragm walls.
This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.
Buy single article
Instant access to the full article PDF.
Tax calculation will be finalised during checkout.
Subscribe to journal
Immediate online access to all issues from 2019. Subscription will auto renew annually.
Tax calculation will be finalised during checkout.
Hawileh RA, Malhas F, Rahman A (2009) Comparison between ACI:318-05 and Eurocode 2 (EC2-94) in flexural concrete design. Struct Eng Mech 32(6):705–724. https://doi.org/10.12989/sem.2009.32.6.705
Brown D, Wulleman T, Bottiau M (2016) A comparison of design practice of bored piles/drilled shafts between Europe and North America. J Deep Found Inst 10(2):54–63. https://doi.org/10.1080/19375247.2016.1254375
Tabsh SW (2013) Comparison between reinforced concrete designs based on the ACI 318 and BS 8110 codes. Struct Eng Mech 48(4):467–477. https://doi.org/10.12989/sem.2013.48.4.467
Fenton GA, Naghibi F, Dundas D, Bathurst RJ, Griffith DV (2016) Reliability based geotechnical design in the 2014 Canadian highway bridge design code. Can Geotech J 53(2):236–251. https://doi.org/10.1139/cgj-2015-0158
European Committee for Standardization (2004) EN 1992-1-1 Eurocode 2: design of concrete structures: part 1–1: general rules and rules for buildings, Brussels
American Concrete Institute (2014) ACI 318 building code requirements for structural concrete, Michigan
American Concrete Institute (2014) ACI SP-17 the reinforced concrete design handbook, vol 3, Michigan
Bureau of Indian Standards (2000) IS 456 code of practice for plain and reinforced concrete, New Delhi
Bureau of Indian Standards (1980) IS 9556 code of practice for design and construction of diaphragm walls, New Delhi
Bureau of Indian Standards (1980) SP 16 design aids for reinforced concrete to IS 456, New Delhi
Standards Australia (2009) AS 3600 concrete structures, Sydney
Standards Australia/Standards New Zealand (2002) AS/NZS 1170.1 structural design action part 1: permanent, imposed and other actions, Sydney
Standards Australia/Standards New Zealand (2002) AS/NZS 1170.0 structural design action: general principles, Sydney
Canadian Standards Association (2014) CSA A 23.3-14 design of concrete structures
British Standards Institution (1997) BS 8110 part 1: structural use of concrete—code of practice for design and construction, London
British Standards Institution (1985) BS 8110 part 3: structural use of concrete—design charts for singly reinforced beams, doubly reinforced beams and rectangular columns, London
British Standards Institution (2004) BS NA EN 1992-1-1 UK National Annex to Eurocode 2 design of concrete structures: general rules and rules for buildings, London
European Committee for Standardization (2010) BS EN 1538 execution of special geotechnical works: diaphragm walls, Brussels
European Committee for Standardization (2004) EN 1997-1 geotechnical design part 1: general rules, Brussels
American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials (2012, 2016) LRFD bridge design specifications
Bureau of Indian Standards (1989) IS 4651 part 2: code of practice for planning and design of ports and harbours-earth pressures, New Delhi
Standards Australia (2002) AS 4678 earth retaining structures, Sydney
Standards Australia (2004) AS 5100.3 bridge design part 3: foundations and soil-supporting structures, Sydney
Canadian Geotechnical Society (2006) Canadian foundation engineering manual
Canadian Standards Association (2014) CAN/CSA-S6-14 Canadian highway bridge design code
British Standards Institution (2015) BS 8004 code of practice for foundations, London
British Standards Institution (2015) BS 8002 code of practice for earth retaining structures, London
Hsiung BCB (2009) A case study on the behaviour of a deep excavation in sand. Comput Geotech 36(4):665–675. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.compgeo.2008.10.003
Sieminska-Lewandowska A, Mitew-Czajewska M (2007) Design of diaphragm walls according to EN 1997-1: 2004 Eurocode 7. In: Proceedings of the 14th European conference on soil mechanics and geotechnical engineering, pp. 291–296, Madrid
Craig RF (2004) Craig’s soil mechanics. CRC Press, Chicago
Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.
About this article
Cite this article
James, A., Kurian, B. Design Specifications for Diaphragm Wall: State of the Art. Indian Geotech J 50, 838–847 (2020). https://doi.org/10.1007/s40098-020-00415-5
- Deep excavation
- Embedded structures
- Diaphragm wall
- Codes of practice
- Safety coefficients